The price of Bitcoin is skyrocketing. Here's why - Decrypt

BTC and Public Traded Companies, match made in heaven or the end of a decentralised BTC?

BTC and Public Traded Companies, match made in heaven or the end of a decentralised BTC?

Current BTC holdings of public trade companies as per Oct 13th, 2020.
''A new survey commissioned by crypto asset insurance company, Evertas, a cryptocurrency insurance firm, found that institutional investors plan to significantly increase their stakes in Bitcoin (BTC) and other digital assets in the future. - Cointelegraph
In recent years we've seen institutional adoption of Crypto increase severly, to the point currently that Grayscale is buying on behalf of its customers so much BTC it could lead to shortages. Investors and hedge funds are currently looking for a hedge against the dollar as macro instability and unprecedented monetary stimulus is taking place. According to the financial consultancy group DeVere group, the bullish activity of BTC during the crisis has led to believe that BTC could replace save haven assets like gold in the future. In terms of price action this could lead to a significant increase in the price of BTC and other crypto assets, but do we want institutional investment from a fundamental point of view?
Why was BTC created?
Satoshi Nakamoto created BTC to counter the fractional reserve banking system which creates money out of thin air, resulting in a weakened currency over time (inflation). Bitcoin and Blockchain are created in such a way that everyone can be their own bank, away from the government and third parties, due to the decentralized P2P network. Satoshi saw that during the financial crisis of 2008 banks could not be trusted, and acted on that.
12 years forward we see these financial institutions getting involved in BTC, buying up large sums of BTC and offering financial instruments to their clients like derivates or shares like Grayscale. This creates a third party as transactions now run through these institutions. This goes against the fundamentals of BTC of 'cutting out the middle man'. Furthermore, it creates large entities or 'whales' of institutions who can manipulate the price in their favor by buying or selling large portions of BTC. They have easy access through cheap funds, because for example the Fed Funds Rate has been extremely low for quite some time.
12 years ago the battle against big financial corporations and their unethical way of doing business has started, and it seems like they're up for round 2.
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Gold and Silver: Where Do They Go From Here?

https://federationofglobalmerchants.com/2020/08/14/gold-and-silver-where-do-they-go-from-here/

Investors know by now that one of the leading indicators of an unstable and unpredictable stock market is a surge in the price of precious metals like gold and silver. In February, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the markets officially entered a recession, even though just months later several of the major indices have reached all-time highs. It was a brief dip into recessionary territory, but this sort of volatility is what gives investors hesitation in putting their money into the stock market, rather than something that is perceived to be more stable. Gold future contracts are selling well above $2000 per ounce for the rest of 2020 and well into 2021 as well showing that investors are confident that gold will continue to rise in price. Silver is also surging reaching new all-time highs on a daily basis. So investors may be curious as to how to get into this red-hot market, especially as the markets continue to fluctuate.
Gold:
For centuries now gold has been literally the ‘gold-standard’ of currency and wealth. Dating back all the way to around 40,000 B.C. in Spanish caves, gold is a naturally occurring element that has both fascinated and lured people for as long as barter systems and wealth has been recorded. Currently, gold is enjoying its highest valuations in history as investors flock to the stability of the precious metal through various streams. So what is the allure of gold and why is it so stable?
Warren Buffett once said, “Gold is a way of going long on fear.” That is quite a statement from perhaps the greatest investment mind of our generation. But what does this mean for the novice investor? Even the most successful blue-chip stocks can crash. Obviously the more prominent and profitable companies with mega market caps will not crash as easily as smaller companies, but given the volatility of the pandemic, we can see anything happen. But as stock markets fluctuate on a daily basis, the price of gold remains mostly stoic. Not as manipulatable as stock prices, gold is as steady as it gets for investors.
What makes gold so stable? It is a combination of factors, first and foremost, it is a physical and tangible element which makes it possible for people to store and stockpile. It does not corrode or wear down over time, making it durable and ensuring that the value remains. There is also a finite supply of it in the world. This reinforces that it will always keep a certain level of valuation as the supply is kept in check.
Today, as the Federal Reserve tries desperately to pump money into the American economy to stave off a global recession and keep companies afloat. Printing more American dollars helps in the interim, but it is a temporary band-aid for the bigger problem. As more of the dollar gets created the more it gets devalued as a form of currency. This is another reason why gold is skyrocketing. The two valuations always work inversely to each other, so as the greenback continues to plummet, the price of gold will continue to surge which makes perfect sense if one thinks about it. The value of gold is priced in American dollars per ounce, so if the value of an American dollar retreats, the cost of gold will rise in response.
So how can investors take advantage of the current state of gold? In the age of internet investing, there are plenty of ways to invest in gold or anything in that matter. Most American platforms give inventors the ability to buy fractional shares of companies. While this comes in handy for expensive stocks like Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN), Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOGL), or Tesla (NASDAQ:TSLA), it also allows investors to diversify their funds across multiple companies to form a basket approach to an industry. There are also plenty of ETFs or Exchange Traded Funds, available for investors to consider. These funds have the diversification of a mutual fund or index fund, but trade like individual stocks. Here’s a few of the better gold ETFs to consider if you are looking to get into the industry:
  1. IAU – iShares Gold Trust: One of the better known gold ETFs out there, iSHARES is a reputable brand with great overall market performance. The fund has returned over 17% to inventors already this year, and with the price of gold projected to continue to rise, this fund should keep delivering for investors into next year.
  2. DGL – Invesco DB Gold Fund: Another well known and reputable ETF, the Invesco Gold Fund has slightly higher fees than iSHARES but has also had a slightly better return so far this year.
  3. IAUF – iShares Gold Strategy ETF: Another iSHARES ETF, this one has parts of IAU, as well as gold futures contracts, to get a long term forecast of the price of gold so the investor gets exposure to a wider range of gold options.
There are dozens of other ETFs available for investors that cover everything from miners to the finished products. Mining company stocks are another great way to get exposure. As the demand for gold increases, these mining companies should see a rise in their revenues and eventually, their profits as well. These changes will be reflected in their stock prices and we have already seen some of this already this year.
  1. ABX – Barrick Gold: One of the largest gold mining companies in the world, this Canadian company has seen healthy gains in their stock price so far in 2020. Over the last 52 weeks, Barrick investors have enjoyed a 131% increase in stock price. With mining projects ongoing in Canada, America, Australia, South America, and Africa, Barrick has already announced that it is on track to achieve guidance this year despite closures from COVID-19.
  2. FNV – Franco-Nevada Gold: This stock price rose almost 15% in July alone. Franco-Nevada operates as a funding company to gold mining companies, rather than actually doing the mining themselves. Sustainalytics, a guidance and analysis company, rated Franco-Nevada number one amongst 104 precious metal companies.
  3. NEM – Newmont Goldcorp: The largest gold stock by market-cap and the only stock to trade on the S&P 500, Newmont is probably the safest company for gold investors to invest in. On top of steady returns and low volatility in the stock price, the company pays a fairly healthy dividend as well.
With gold at all-time highs, we can begin to question how high the precious metal may go. With a second wave of the coronavirus making its way around some parts of the world, and America, still making its way through their initial wave, the uncertainty that exists in today’s markets may continue into 2021. Some Wall Street analysts have forecast gold to rise as high as $10,000 per ounce, but that seems like a little ambitious. Gold has just recently hit all-time highs at $2000 per ounce and to imagine that it can run up another 500% in the next few years seems far-fetched at this point in time. That would require the markets to enter an extended bear-market, which of course is possible after a decade of a bullish run, but it would also require the American dollar to continue to be further devalued.
Gold is pegged to continue to rise for the rest of this year though and well into 2021. That means investors and analysts are foreseeing a further devaluation of the American greenback as well as continued volatility in the markets and economy. Is gold a safe haven? Some people believe it is, but if you are an investor that enjoys high returns over long periods of time, investing in precious metals may not be for you. Investors love the stability of gold but the returns are never astronomical, with the last few months being an exception. It helps to have a portion of your portfolio dedicated to precious metals to diversify and protect you from any sudden market corrections, but investors should not be looking at gold as a short-term way to get wealthy.
Silver: The other precious metal that has been flying sky-high of recent months is silver, the eternal younger brother to gold. Mined from silver-ore, it is a highly malleable metal that was once valued higher than gold by the Ancient Egyptians. Today, it is relatively low in price per ounce compared to gold, reaching all-time highs recently of just under $30 per ounce. Silver is another stable alternative to gold, and at lower prices, it may be a little more affordable for the novice investor to jump into.
Like with gold, silver has an inverse relationship to the American dollar, and to all currencies in general. Again, this is another reason why silver is hitting all-time highs right now, with silver future contracts predicting a steady rise to mirror gold, well into 2021. There is also something that Wall Street calls the gold silver ratio, which is exactly what it sounds like: the ratio of the price of gold per ounce to the price of silver per ounce. This ratio has historically moved together, which makes logical sense if both precious metals are independently moving inverse to paper currencies. Historically, the gold and silver prices do move together though as the general ratio has been in the range of 17:1 to 20:1.
Silver also has numerous ways for investors to get involved in, including silver mining and production companies, as well as the ever popular silver ETFs. These Exchange Traded Funds have gained popularity amongst retail investors in recent years as a way of purchasing a diversified product as a single equity with low costs, and no trading fees if your platform allows it. Here are a few of the better performing silver ETFs that investors can look into adding to their portfolios if they are interested in the precious metal:
  1. SLV – iShares Silver Trust: Probably one of the better known silver ETFs, this is fully backed by silver bullion and coins held in a vault. While usually fairly steady, this ETF has enjoyed a 52-week increase of 152% with much of that coming in the last few months.
  2. SIVR – Aberdeen Standard Physical Silver Shares ETF: Very similar to SLV but with lower fees, this is an ideal fund for novice and experienced investors to get into as they start to diversify their portfolios.
  3. DBS – Invesco DB Silver Fund: Again another stable ETF for investors to get into, and another good performing one as well. Just as with their gold ETF, Invsco focuses on silver futures contracts for this fund, so it is a nice long-term play if investors are bullish on silver.
Just as with gold, investors can get a slice of the silver pie by buying shares of silver mining companies as well. Here are a few of the top silver mining company stocks that investors can look into adding to their portfolios.
  1. PAAS – Pan American Silver Corp.: This Canada based miner is focussed on the exploration, development, extraction, refining, processing, and reclamation of silver. They operate mines in Peru, Mexico, Bolivia, and are developing more as well for the future.
  2. WPM – Wheaton Precious Metals: Another Canadian based company that deals with miners of gold, silver, palladium, and cobalt. Wheaton is not a direct miner, rather they purchase these precious metals from other mining companies.
  3. AG – First Majestic Silver Corp.: Canadian companies seem to be dominating the silver industry, and First Majestic is another of those. This company focuses mainly in Mexico for gold and silver.
Silver may never be as popular as gold for investors to keep track of but the two precious metals move in a synchronized fashion, and both are looked upon by investors as safe havens for their money when the market is in flux.
The rest of 2020 seems like a wildcard right now, with many analysts expecting a further correction to the markets at any point. There seems to be an inevitability to a market crash of some sort, whether it is as big as the one that happened back in February and March, remains to be seen. Investors are looking at the precious metal industry to hold their funds to wait out any sort of correction or crash. If this does happen, we may expect a pullback in precious metals too as investors selloff to get back into some stocks at their low levels. Such is the ebb and flow of the economy during turbulent times like the current one we are in.
At the same time, what if a market correction does not happen? Will the uncertainty continue or will investors feel relatively secure in the way the markets are progressing? This could cause a reduction in the demand for silver and gold, culminating in lower prices in the future. Of course this also depends on the Federal Reserve diminishing their rate of printing paper currency to bailout the economy, which does not seem like a reality in the short-term at least.
Another point of contention for investors is the ongoing economical and political tensions between China and America. The two world powers have been feuding for the past couple of months over various things, but it escalated as China social media app Tik Tok gained popularity in North America. It was alleged that TikTok was sending data and information from mobile phones back to China, though nobody is sure of their intended use of this data. Regardless, the markets have stumbled several times lately because of this. Both sides have threatened economic sanctions and the banning of certain product use in each country. The prices of silver and gold have shot up as the tensions have escalated between the two governments, as investors flock to the precious metals. Many of the biggest companies on the major stock indices rely on China for materials or production, so any sort of breakdown in supply chains could cause an enormous change to their stock prices. An example of this is a sudden 5% correction in the price of Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL), as it was thought that iPhone sales would decline if China’s chat platform WeChat was banned in America.
There are other factors that may have an effect on gold and silver prices as well. In this modern economy, many of the retail investors have trended towards younger adults with a sudden influx of income. Popular platforms such as Robinhood combined with increased time at home during the quarantine, have caused retail investor usage to skyrocket during the pandemic. Many of these investors are more lured in by the shiny new objects of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Perhaps we will start thinking of these cryptocurrencies as a modern day version of precious metals one day, as many investors and some analysts, believe that Bitcoin may be a safe haven in the future. Already, the price of Bitcoin has risen above $12,000 in August, mirroring the highs of gold and silver. If the demand for Bitcoin rises higher than the demand for precious metals, we may see an investor migration to cryptocurrencies rather than tangible metals.
Conclusion: Gold and silver are staples of our global economy, and will continue to be so as long as the demand for precious metals exists. In times of uncertainty, gold and silver are viewed as safe relative to the volatility of the stock market. Sure, their prices can vary as well, but because they are tied to a less dynamic valuation that is based on an inverse relation to paper currency, their prices will not and can not fluctuate as much as the liquidity of individual stocks.
As long as the world remains in flux, there will be a general feeling of instability, especially for global markets. A second wave of COVID-19 in the third or fourth quarter of 2020 could prove to be enough to push the markets over the edge and into another recession. The bull market has been rallying for over a decade now, with astronomical gains over the last few years, especially for sectors like the big tech FAANG stocks. Another factor to consider is what a Biden government could bring to the world if he is elected over President Donald Trump in October. A new government could ease some of the tensions with China, as well as within America itself. These are all big what ifs, and could all have potential impacts on the economy and the world. As long as all of these factors are up in the air, investors will be looking to gold and silver as ways of stabilizing their portfolios and protecting their finances from a potential market crash in the future.
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Dive Into Tendermint Consensus Protocol (I)

Dive Into Tendermint Consensus Protocol (I)
This article is written by the CoinEx Chain lab. CoinEx Chain is the world’s first public chain exclusively designed for DEX, and will also include a Smart Chain supporting smart contracts and a Privacy Chain protecting users’ privacy.
longcpp @ 20200618
This is Part 1 of the serialized articles aimed to explain the Tendermint consensus protocol in detail.
Part 1. Preliminary of the consensus protocol: security model and PBFT protocol
Part 2. Tendermint consensus protocol illustrated: two-phase voting protocol and the locking and unlocking mechanism
Part 3. Weighted round-robin proposer selection algorithm used in Tendermint project
Any consensus agreement that is ultimately reached is the General Agreement, that is, the majority opinion. The consensus protocol on which the blockchain system operates is no exception. As a distributed system, the blockchain system aims to maintain the validity of the system. Intuitively, the validity of the blockchain system has two meanings: firstly, there is no ambiguity, and secondly, it can process requests to update its status. The former corresponds to the safety requirements of distributed systems, while the latter to the requirements of liveness. The validity of distributed systems is mainly maintained by consensus protocols, considering the multiple nodes and network communication involved in such systems may be unstable, which has brought huge challenges to the design of consensus protocols.

The semi-synchronous network model and Byzantine fault tolerance

Researchers of distributed systems characterize these problems that may occur in nodes and network communications using node failure models and network models. The fail-stop failure in node failure models refers to the situation where the node itself stops running due to configuration errors or other reasons, thus unable to go on with the consensus protocol. This type of failure will not cause side effects on other parts of the distributed system except that the node itself stops running. However, for such distributed systems as the public blockchain, when designing a consensus protocol, we still need to consider the evildoing intended by nodes besides their failure. These incidents are all included in the Byzantine Failure model, which covers all unexpected situations that may occur on the node, for example, passive downtime failures and any deviation intended by the nodes from the consensus protocol. For a better explanation, downtime failures refer to nodes’ passive running halt, and the Byzantine failure to any arbitrary deviation of nodes from the consensus protocol.
Compared with the node failure model which can be roughly divided into the passive and active models, the modeling of network communication is more difficult. The network itself suffers problems of instability and communication delay. Moreover, since all network communication is ultimately completed by the node which may have a downtime failure or a Byzantine failure in itself, it is usually difficult to define whether such failure arises from the node or the network itself when a node does not receive another node's network message. Although the network communication may be affected by many factors, the researchers found that the network model can be classified by the communication delay. For example, the node may fail to send data packages due to the fail-stop failure, and as a result, the corresponding communication delay is unknown and can be any value. According to the concept of communication delay, the network communication model can be divided into the following three categories:
  • The synchronous network model: There is a fixed, known upper bound of delay $\Delta$ in network communication. Under this model, the maximum delay of network communication between two nodes in the network is $\Delta$. Even if there is a malicious node, the communication delay arising therefrom does not exceed $\Delta$.
  • The asynchronous network model: There is an unknown delay in network communication, with the upper bound of the delay known, but the message can still be successfully delivered in the end. Under this model, the network communication delay between two nodes in the network can be any possible value, that is, a malicious node, if any, can arbitrarily extend the communication delay.
  • The semi-synchronous network model: Assume that there is a Global Stabilization Time (GST), before which it is an asynchronous network model and after which, a synchronous network model. In other words, there is a fixed, known upper bound of delay in network communication $\Delta$. A malicious node can delay the GST arbitrarily, and there will be no notification when no GST occurs. Under this model, the delay in the delivery of the message at the time $T$ is $\Delta + max(T, GST)$.
The synchronous network model is the most ideal network environment. Every message sent through the network can be received within a predictable time, but this model cannot reflect the real network communication situation. As in a real network, network failures are inevitable from time to time, causing the failure in the assumption of the synchronous network model. Yet the asynchronous network model goes to the other extreme and cannot reflect the real network situation either. Moreover, according to the FLP (Fischer-Lynch-Paterson) theorem, under this model if there is one node fails, no consensus protocol will reach consensus in a limited time. In contrast, the semi-synchronous network model can better describe the real-world network communication situation: network communication is usually synchronous or may return to normal after a short time. Such an experience must be no stranger to everyone: the web page, which usually gets loaded quite fast, opens slowly every now and then, and you need to try before you know the network is back to normal since there is usually no notification. The peer-to-peer (P2P) network communication, which is widely used in blockchain projects, also makes it possible for a node to send and receive information from multiple network channels. It is unrealistic to keep blocking the network information transmission of a node for a long time. Therefore, all the discussion below is under the semi-synchronous network model.
The design and selection of consensus protocols for public chain networks that allow nodes to dynamically join and leave need to consider possible Byzantine failures. Therefore, the consensus protocol of a public chain network is designed to guarantee the security and liveness of the network under the semi-synchronous network model on the premise of possible Byzantine failure. Researchers of distributed systems point out that to ensure the security and liveness of the system, the consensus protocol itself needs to meet three requirements:
  • Validity: The value reached by honest nodes must be the value proposed by one of them
  • Agreement: All honest nodes must reach consensus on the same value
  • Termination: The honest nodes must eventually reach consensus on a certain value
Validity and agreement can guarantee the security of the distributed system, that is, the honest nodes will never reach a consensus on a random value, and once the consensus is reached, all honest nodes agree on this value. Termination guarantees the liveness of distributed systems. A distributed system unable to reach consensus is useless.

The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem

In a semi-synchronous network, is it possible to design a Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that satisfies validity, agreement, and termination? How many Byzantine nodes can a system tolerance? The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem provide an answer for these two questions and have thus become the basic guidelines for the design of Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocols.
Lamport, Shostak, and Pease abstracted the design of the consensus mechanism in the distributed system in 1982 as the Byzantine Generals Problem, which refers to such a situation as described below: several generals each lead the army to fight in the war, and their troops are stationed in different places. The generals must formulate a unified action plan for the victory. However, since the camps are far away from each other, they can only communicate with each other through the communication soldiers, or, in other words, they cannot appear on the same occasion at the same time to reach a consensus. Unfortunately, among the generals, there is a traitor or two who intend to undermine the unified actions of the loyal generals by sending the wrong information, and the communication soldiers cannot send the message to the destination by themselves. It is assumed that each communication soldier can prove the information he has brought comes from a certain general, just as in the case of a real BFT consensus protocol, each node has its public and private keys to establish an encrypted communication channel for each other to ensure that its messages will not be tampered with in the network communication, and the message receiver can also verify the sender of the message based thereon. As already mentioned, any consensus agreement ultimately reached represents the consensus of the majority. In the process of generals communicating with each other for an offensive or retreat, a general also makes decisions based on the majority opinion from the information collected by himself.
According to the research of Lamport et al, if there are 1/3 or more traitors in the node, the generals cannot reach a unified decision. For example, in the following figure, assume there are 3 generals and only 1 traitor. In the figure on the left, suppose that General C is the traitor, and A and B are loyal. If A wants to launch an attack and informs B and C of such intention, yet the traitor C sends a message to B, suggesting what he has received from A is a retreat. In this case, B can't decide as he doesn't know who the traitor is, and the information received is insufficient for him to decide. If A is a traitor, he can send different messages to B and C. Then C faithfully reports to B the information he received. At this moment as B receives conflicting information, he cannot make any decisions. In both cases, even if B had received consistent information, it would be impossible for him to spot the traitor between A and C. Therefore, it is obvious that in both situations shown in the figure below, the honest General B cannot make a choice.
According to this conclusion, when there are $n$ generals with at most $f$ traitors (n≤3f), the generals cannot reach a consensus if $n \leq 3f$; and with $n > 3f$, a consensus can be reached. This conclusion also suggests that when the number of Byzantine failures $f$ exceeds 1/3 of the total number of nodes $n$ in the system $f \ge n/3$ , no consensus will be reached on any consensus protocol among all honest nodes. Only when $f < n/3$, such condition is likely to happen, without loss of generality, and for the subsequent discussion on the consensus protocol, $ n \ge 3f + 1$ by default.
The conclusion reached by Lamport et al. on the Byzantine Generals Problem draws a line between the possible and the impossible in the design of the Byzantine fault tolerance consensus protocol. Within the possible range, how will the consensus protocol be designed? Can both the security and liveness of distributed systems be fully guaranteed? Brewer provided the answer in his CAP theorem in 2000. It indicated that a distributed system requires the following three basic attributes, but any distributed system can only meet two of the three at the same time.
  1. Consistency: When any node responds to the request, it must either provide the latest status information or provide no status information
  2. Availability: Any node in the system must be able to continue reading and writing
  3. Partition Tolerance: The system can tolerate the loss of any number of messages between two nodes and still function normally

https://preview.redd.it/1ozfwk7u7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=fdee6318de2cf1c021e636654766a7a0fe7b38b4
A distributed system aims to provide consistent services. Therefore, the consistency attribute requires that the two nodes in the system cannot provide conflicting status information or expired information, which can ensure the security of the distributed system. The availability attribute is to ensure that the system can continuously update its status and guarantee the availability of distributed systems. The partition tolerance attribute is related to the network communication delay, and, under the semi-synchronous network model, it can be the status before GST when the network is in an asynchronous status with an unknown delay in the network communication. In this condition, communicating nodes may not receive information from each other, and the network is thus considered to be in a partitioned status. Partition tolerance requires the distributed system to function normally even in network partitions.
The proof of the CAP theorem can be demonstrated with the following diagram. The curve represents the network partition, and each network has four nodes, distinguished by the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. The distributed system stores color information, and all the status information stored by all nodes is blue at first.
  1. Partition tolerance and availability mean the loss of consistency: When node 1 receives a new request in the leftmost image, the status changes to red, the status transition information of node 1 is passed to node 3, and node 3 also updates the status information to red. However, since node 3 and node 4 did not receive the corresponding information due to the network partition, the status information is still blue. At this moment, if the status information is queried through node 2, the blue returned by node 2 is not the latest status of the system, thus losing consistency.
  2. Partition tolerance and consistency mean the loss of availability: In the middle figure, the initial status information of all nodes is blue. When node 1 and node 3 update the status information to red, node 2 and node 4 maintain the outdated information as blue due to network partition. Also when querying status information through node 2, you need to first ask other nodes to make sure you’re in the latest status before returning status information as node 2 needs to follow consistency, but because of the network partition, node 2 cannot receive any information from node 1 or node 3. Then node 2 cannot determine whether it is in the latest status, so it chooses not to return any information, thus depriving the system of availability.
  3. Consistency and availability mean the loss of the partition tolerance: In the right-most figure, the system does not have a network partition at first, and both status updates and queries can go smoothly. However, once a network partition occurs, it degenerates into one of the previous two conditions. It is thus proved that any distributed system cannot have consistency, availability, and partition tolerance all at the same time.

https://preview.redd.it/456x2blv7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=550797373145b8fc1471bdde68ed5f8d45adb52b
The discovery of the CAP theorem seems to declare that the aforementioned goals of the consensus protocol is impossible. However, if you’re careful enough, you may find from the above that those are all extreme cases, such as network partitions that cause the failure of information transmission, which could be rare, especially in P2P network. In the second case, the system rarely returns the same information with node 2, and the general practice is to query other nodes and return the latest status as believed after a while, regardless of whether it has received the request information of other nodes. Therefore, although the CAP theorem points out that any distributed system cannot satisfy the three attributes at the same time, it is not a binary choice, as the designer of the consensus protocol can weigh up all the three attributes according to the needs of the distributed system. However, as the communication delay is always involved in the distributed system, one always needs to choose between availability and consistency while ensuring a certain degree of partition tolerance. Specifically, in the second case, it is about the value that node 2 returns: a probably outdated value or no value. Returning the possibly outdated value may violate consistency but guarantees availability; yet returning no value deprives the system of availability but guarantees its consistency. Tendermint consensus protocol to be introduced is consistent in this trade-off. In other words, it will lose availability in some cases.
The genius of Satoshi Nakamoto is that with constraints of the CAP theorem, he managed to reach a reliable Byzantine consensus in a distributed network by combining PoW mechanism, Satoshi Nakamoto consensus, and economic incentives with appropriate parameter configuration. Whether Bitcoin's mechanism design solves the Byzantine Generals Problem has remained a dispute among academicians. Garay, Kiayias, and Leonardos analyzed the link between Bitcoin mechanism design and the Byzantine consensus in detail in their paper The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications. In simple terms, the Satoshi Consensus is a probabilistic Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that depends on such conditions as the network communication environment and the proportion of malicious nodes' hashrate. When the proportion of malicious nodes’ hashrate does not exceed 1/2 in a good network communication environment, the Satoshi Consensus can reliably solve the Byzantine consensus problem in a distributed environment. However, when the environment turns bad, even with the proportion within 1/2, the Satoshi Consensus may still fail to reach a reliable conclusion on the Byzantine consensus problem. It is worth noting that the quality of the network environment is relative to Bitcoin's block interval. The 10-minute block generation interval of the Bitcoin can ensure that the system is in a good network communication environment in most cases, given the fact that the broadcast time of a block in the distributed network is usually just several seconds. In addition, economic incentives can motivate most nodes to actively comply with the agreement. It is thus considered that with the current Bitcoin network parameter configuration and mechanism design, the Bitcoin mechanism design has reliably solved the Byzantine Consensus problem in the current network environment.

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, PBFT

It is not an easy task to design the Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol in a semi-synchronous network. The first practically usable Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol is the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) designed by Castro and Liskov in 1999, the first of its kind with polynomial complexity. For a distributed system with $n$ nodes, the communication complexity is $O(n2$.) Castro and Liskov showed in the paper that by transforming centralized file system into a distributed one using the PBFT protocol, the overwall performance was only slowed down by 3%. In this section we will briefly introduce the PBFT protocol, paving the way for further detailed explanations of the Tendermint protocol and the improvements of the Tendermint protocol.
The PBFT protocol that includes $n=3f+1$ nodes can tolerate up to $f$ Byzantine nodes. In the original paper of PBFT, full connection is required among all the $n$ nodes, that is, any two of the n nodes must be connected. All the nodes of the network jointly maintain the system status through network communication. In the Bitcoin network, a node can participate in or exit the consensus process through hashrate mining at any time, which is managed by the administrator, and the PFBT protocol needs to determine all the participating nodes before the protocol starts. All nodes in the PBFT protocol are divided into two categories, master nodes, and slave nodes. There is only one master node at any time, and all nodes take turns to be the master node. All nodes run in a rotation process called View, in each of which the master node will be reelected. The master node selection algorithm in PBFT is very simple: all nodes become the master node in turn by the index number. In each view, all nodes try to reach a consensus on the system status. It is worth mentioning that in the PBFT protocol, each node has its own digital signature key pair. All sent messages (including request messages from the client) need to be signed to ensure the integrity of the message in the network and the traceability of the message itself. (You can determine who sent a message based on the digital signature).
The following figure shows the basic flow of the PBFT consensus protocol. Assume that the current view’s master node is node 0. Client C initiates a request to the master node 0. After the master node receives the request, it broadcasts the request to all slave nodes that process the request of client C and return the result to the client. After the client receives f+1 identical results from different nodes (based on the signature value), the result can be taken as the final result of the entire operation. Since the system can have at most f Byzantine nodes, at least one of the f+1 results received by the client comes from an honest node, and the security of the consensus protocol guarantees that all honest nodes will reach consensus on the same status. So, the feedback from 1 honest node is enough to confirm that the corresponding request has been processed by the system.

https://preview.redd.it/sz8so5ly7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=d472810e76bbc202e91a25ef29a51e109a576554
For the status synchronization of all honest nodes, the PBFT protocol has two constraints on each node: on one hand, all nodes must start from the same status, and on the other, the status transition of all nodes must be definite, that is, given the same status and request, the results after the operation must be the same. Under these two constraints, as long as the entire system agrees on the processing order of all transactions, the status of all honest nodes will be consistent. This is also the main purpose of the PBFT protocol: to reach a consensus on the order of transactions between all nodes, thereby ensuring the security of the entire distributed system. In terms of availability, the PBFT consensus protocol relies on a timeout mechanism to find anomalies in the consensus process and start the View Change protocol in time to try to reach a consensus again.
The figure above shows a simplified workflow of the PBFT protocol. Where C is the client, 0, 1, 2, and 3 represent 4 nodes respectively. Specifically, 0 is the master node of the current view, 1, 2, 3 are slave nodes, and node 3 is faulty. Under normal circumstances, the PBFT consensus protocol reaches consensus on the order of transactions between nodes through a three-phase protocol. These three phases are respectively: Pre-Prepare, Prepare, and Commit:
  • The master node of the pre-preparation node is responsible for assigning the sequence number to the received client request, and broadcasting the message to the slave node. The message contains the hash value of the client request d, the sequence number of the current viewv, the sequence number n assigned by the master node to the request, and the signature information of the master nodesig. The scheme design of the PBFT protocol separates the request transmission from the request sequencing process, and the request transmission is not to be discussed here. The slave node that receives the message accepts the message after confirming the message is legitimate and enter preparation phase. The message in this step checks the basic signature, hash value, current view, and, most importantly, whether the master node has given the same sequence number to other request from the client in the current view.
  • In preparation, the slave node broadcasts the message to all nodes (including itself), indicating that it assigns the sequence number n to the client request with the hash value d under the current view v, with its signaturesig as proof. The node receiving the message will check the correctness of the signature, the matching of the view sequence number, etc., and accept the legitimate message. When the PRE-PREPARE message about a client request (from the main node) received by a node matches with the PREPARE from 2f slave nodes, the system has agreed on the sequence number requested by the client in the current view. This means that 2f+1 nodes in the current view agree with the request sequence number. Since it contains information from at most fmalicious nodes, there are a total of f+1 honest nodes that have agreed with the allocation of the request sequence number. With f malicious nodes, there are a total of 2f+1 honest nodes, so f+1represents the majority of the honest nodes, which is the consensus of the majority mentioned before.
  • After the node (including the master node and the slave node) receives a PRE-PREPARE message requested by the client and 2f PREPARE messages, the message is broadcast across the network and enters the submission phase. This message is used to indicate that the node has observed that the whole network has reached a consensus on the sequence number allocation of the request message from the client. When the node receives 2f+1 COMMIT messages, there are at least f+1 honest nodes, that is, most of the honest nodes have observed that the entire network has reached consensus on the arrangement of sequence numbers of the request message from the client. The node can process the client request and return the execution result to the client at this moment.
Roughly speaking, in the pre-preparation phase, the master node assigns a sequence number to all new client requests. During preparation, all nodes reach consensus on the client request sequence number in this view, while in submission the consistency of the request sequence number of the client in different views is to be guaranteed. In addition, the design of the PBFT protocol itself does not require the request message to be submitted by the assigned sequence number, but out of order. That can improve the efficiency of the implementation of the consensus protocol. Yet, the messages are still processed by the sequence number assigned by the consensus protocol for the consistency of the distributed system.
In the three-phase protocol execution of the PBFT protocol, in addition to maintaining the status information of the distributed system, the node itself also needs to log all kinds of consensus information it receives. The gradual accumulation of logs will consume considerable system resources. Therefore, the PBFT protocol additionally defines checkpoints to help the node deal with garbage collection. You can set a checkpoint every 100 or 1000 sequence numbers according to the request sequence number. After the client request at the checkpoint is executed, the node broadcasts messages throughout the network, indicating that after the node executes the client request with sequence number n, the hash value of the system status is d, and it is vouched by its own signature sig. After 2f+1 matching CHECKPOINT messages (one of which can come from the node itself) are received, most of the honest nodes in the entire network have reached a consensus on the system status after the execution of the client request with the sequence numbern, and then you can clear all relevant log records of client requests with the sequence number less than n. The node needs to save these2f+1 CHECKPOINTmessages as proof of the legitimate status at this moment, and the corresponding checkpoint is called a stable checkpoint.
The three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol can ensure the consistency of the processing order of the client request, and the checkpoint mechanism is set to help nodes perform garbage collection and further ensures the status consistency of the distributed system, both of which can guarantee the security of the distributed system aforementioned. How is the availability of the distributed system guaranteed? In the semi-synchronous network model, a timeout mechanism is usually introduced, which is related to delays in the network environment. It is assumed that the network delay has a known upper bound after GST. In such condition, an initial value is usually set according to the network condition of the system deployed. In case of a timeout event, besides the corresponding processing flow triggered, additional mechanisms will be activated to readjust the waiting time. For example, an algorithm like TCP's exponential back off can be adopted to adjust the waiting time after a timeout event.
To ensure the availability of the system in the PBFT protocol, a timeout mechanism is also introduced. In addition, due to the potential the Byzantine failure in the master node itself, the PBFT protocol also needs to ensure the security and availability of the system in this case. When the Byzantine failure occurs in the master node, for example, when the slave node does not receive the PRE-PREPARE message or the PRE-PREPARE message sent by the master node from the master node within the time window and is thus determined to be illegitimate, the slave node can broadcast to the entire network, indicating that the node requests to switch to the new view with sequence number v+1. n indicates the request sequence number corresponding to the latest stable checkpoint local to the node, and C is to prove the stable checkpoint 2f+1 legitimate CHECKPOINT messages as aforementioned. After the latest stable checkpoint and before initiating the VIEWCHANGE message, the system may have reached a consensus on the sequence numbers of some request messages in the previous view. To ensure the consistency of these request sequence numbers to be switched in the view, the VIEWCHANGE message needs to carry this kind of the information to the new view, which is also the meaning of the P field in the message. P contains all the client request messages collected at the node with a request sequence number greater than n and the proof that a consensus has been reached on the sequence number in the node: the legitimate PRE-PREPARE message of the request and 2f matching PREPARE messages. When the master node in view v+1 collects 2f+1 VIEWCHANGE messages, it can broadcast the NEW-VIEW message and take the entire system into a new view. For the security of the system in combination with the three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol, the construction rules of the NEW-VIEW information are designed in a quite complicated way. You can refer to the original paper of PBFT for more details.

https://preview.redd.it/x5efdc908m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=97b4fd879d0ec668ee0990ea4cadf476167a2948
VIEWCHANGE contains a lot of information. For example, C contains 2f+1 signature information, P contains several signature sets, and each set has 2f+1 signature. At least 2f+1 nodes need to send a VIEWCHANGE message before prompting the system to enter the next new view, and that means, in addition to the complex logic of constructing the information of VIEWCHANGE and NEW-VIEW, the communication complexity of the view conversion protocol is $O(n2$.) Such complexity also limits the PBFT protocol to support only a few nodes, and when there are 100 nodes, it is usually too complex to practically deploy PBFT. It is worth noting that in some materials the communication complexity of the PBFT protocol is inappropriately attributed to the full connection between n nodes. By changing the fully connected network topology to the P2P network topology based on distributed hash tables commonly used in blockchain projects, high communication complexity caused by full connection can be conveniently solved, yet still, it is difficult to improve the communication complexity during the view conversion process. In recent years, researchers have proposed to reduce the amount of communication in this step by adopting aggregate signature scheme. With this technology, 2f+1 signature information can be compressed into one, thereby reducing the communication volume during view change.
submitted by coinexchain to u/coinexchain [link] [comments]

How Do Stablecoins Behave During Corona Time?

During this widespread chaos, the stablecoin market shows strong growth. While most cryptocurrencies have experienced a decrease in market capitalization this month, stablecoins are just about to celebrate a victory – the collapse of the cryptocurrency market affected them the least.
Recently, the volume of assets parked in stablecoins has significantly increased in the crypto market. This indicates a strong hesitation of investors.
The benefits offered by dollar-linked digital assets have indeed become particularly evident in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Recently, the authorities of several countries, including China, Iran, and Hungary, were seriously alarmed by the threat of infection of citizens through paper bills.
There is a high level of volatility and uncertainty on world markets, and it has covered not only stocks and raw materials, but also the cryptocurrency market. In this context, there has been a noticeable influx of capital into stablecoins, which caused great doubt and indecision among investors.
The total market capitalization of all stablecoins has recently reached a new record high and exceeded $7 billion. This may indicate that investors lost their positions on the volatile and disappointing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies – at the same time, they still were not ready to completely say goodbye to the cryptocurrency market.

The economy is sagging — stablecoins are getting stronger

Recent weeks have been difficult for traders, no matter what they trade. World stocks, oil, gold, Bitcoin – all assets were thrown up and down, as the destructive consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for the world economy became increasingly apparent.
Meanwhile, among all this chaos, this market segment continues to demonstrate not only sustainability but also growth.
However, due to a sharp drop in the value of assets against which USDT is traded, Tether's trading volume fell 20% from $60 billion to $48 billion over the same period.
Stablecoin is a relatively young phenomenon in the crypto industry, nevertheless, it quickly gained popularity among traders who want to withdraw their funds from the volatile Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies, but not to leave the cryptocurrency market. Players consider stablecoins an island of stability due to their attachment to more traditional currencies and assets.
At the end of 2017, the market capitalization of the stablecoins did not reach $1 billion. By mid-2018, this figure exceeded $3 billion. At the end of January of this year, BeInCrypto editors reported that at the time of publication, there had been placed about $6 billion of stablecoins awaiting a signal to enter the market.

Over $7 billion at a low start

Since then, this figure has grown significantly again. Currently, the massive panic in world markets has further strengthened the position of stablecoins. Stablecoins are chosen more often compared to other cryptocurrencies.
As Bloqport (an analytical resource) recently reported, the stablecoin market has grown by an impressive $1.5 billion only during the last month. Bloqport is optimistic about these figures and believes that investors are just waiting for a convenient moment to enter the cryptocurrency market. Then a sharp influx of capital into Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will cause their active growth.
However, while the market fear index is at an extreme point, such a rally cannot be expected. Moreover, at the moment, such an increase in the stability of the stablecoin market only means that players use stablecoins as a hedging tool against the cryptocurrency market itself.
The Financial Stability Board of 20 countries (G20) presented a report on the study of stablecoins. The report noted that their recent popularity can even create excessive competition for traditional money.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to USDC [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Fell Below $9,000 Amid S&P 500 Crash

Bitcoin Fell Below $9,000 Amid S&P 500 Crash

Did Bitcoin Revert To Follow Major Indices Amid Crisis Rumors?
The crypto sector experienced another price slump, as Bitcoin fell below its $9,000 support zone, dragging the entire sector down.
Bitcoin’s price wobbled between bullish and bearish stance for almost a week, but the latest bearish push managed to break Bitcoin’s resistance to trade as low as $8,920 on some crypto exchanges. Тhe six-percent drop also impacted the performance of the altcoin sector, as the crypto sector closely correlates with Bitcoin’s price movements.
Ethereum, for example, is down five percent to trade at $223.72. Ripple’s price went down with three percent, while the rest of the sector recorded an average of 6% price decline over the past 24 hours.
As a result of Bitcoin’s price slump, one of the largest crypto exchanges to date, BitMEX recorded around $20 million worth of Bitcoin being liquidated. The amount adds up to the $10 million worth of BitMEX long positions closed in the 24 hours prior to the price drop, adding to Bitcoin’s price instability.
Source: Skew.com
However, crypto data aggregator CryptoQuant reported a vast amount of Bitcoin being moved to exchange-owned crypto wallets. Тhe Bitcoin movements indicate smaller Bitcoin holders are franticly selling Bitcoin to prevent losses from a further price drop.
Meanwhile, the price drop coincided with the red start of trading for the S&P 500 index. The index fell three percent, meaning that currently S&P 500 is slightly outperforming Bitcoin in terms of trading. However, crypto experts predicted such price slump as ByteTree’s co-founder Charlie Morris tweeted that indicators, such as network velocity, transaction values and sizes, and network fees are all down from the past weeks. “Why there is a lack of interest? I can’t see Bitcoin’s price holding up, as it’s fair value is around $7,000” Morris wrote on Twitter.
Source: TradingView
Тhe indices drop also coincided with yet another event – Bitcoin’s transaction fees fell under $1, just like they were prior to the halving of May 11. The total drop is 91%, meaning that Bitcoin’s transaction fees crashed from a high of $6,65 in mid-May to just $0,56 per transaction several days later. The phenomenon was evident during the second Bitcoin halving, too, as in the second halving Bitcoin saw a 200% transaction fee increase, as opposed to the 1600% peak in the May 2020 halving event.
Interestingly, after the transaction fee drop, Ethereum surpassed Bitcoin in terms of network fees. However, Ethereum’s network is overwhelmed with transactions, as currently, ETH’s network holds over 100,000 unconfirmed transactions, while Bitcoin’s network only holds under 1,000.
As of press time, the Bitcoin's price has rebounded and returned to levels above 9k USD, as it currently sits at $9,123.74
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]

How Do Stablecoins Behave During Corona Time?

During this widespread chaos, the stablecoin market shows strong growth. While most cryptocurrencies have experienced a decrease in market capitalization this month, stablecoins are just about to celebrate a victory – the collapse of the cryptocurrency market affected them the least.
Recently, the volume of assets parked in stablecoins has significantly increased in the crypto market. This indicates a strong hesitation of investors.
The benefits offered by dollar-linked digital assets have indeed become particularly evident in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Recently, the authorities of several countries, including China, Iran, and Hungary, were seriously alarmed by the threat of infection of citizens through paper bills.
There is a high level of volatility and uncertainty on world markets, and it has covered not only stocks and raw materials, but also the cryptocurrency market. In this context, there has been a noticeable influx of capital into stablecoins, which caused great doubt and indecision among investors.
The total market capitalization of all stablecoins has recently reached a new record high and exceeded $7 billion. This may indicate that investors lost their positions on the volatile and disappointing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies – at the same time, they still were not ready to completely say goodbye to the cryptocurrency market.

The economy is sagging — stablecoins are getting stronger

Recent weeks have been difficult for traders, no matter what they trade. World stocks, oil, gold, Bitcoin – all assets were thrown up and down, as the destructive consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for the world economy became increasingly apparent.
Meanwhile, among all this chaos, this market segment continues to demonstrate not only sustainability but also growth.
However, due to a sharp drop in the value of assets against which USDT is traded, Tether's trading volume fell 20% from $60 billion to $48 billion over the same period.
Stablecoin is a relatively young phenomenon in the crypto industry, nevertheless, it quickly gained popularity among traders who want to withdraw their funds from the volatile Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies, but not to leave the cryptocurrency market. Players consider stablecoins an island of stability due to their attachment to more traditional currencies and assets.
At the end of 2017, the market capitalization of the stablecoins did not reach $1 billion. By mid-2018, this figure exceeded $3 billion. At the end of January of this year, BeInCrypto editors reported that at the time of publication, there had been placed about $6 billion of stablecoins awaiting a signal to enter the market.

Over $7 billion at a low start

Since then, this figure has grown significantly again. Currently, the massive panic in world markets has further strengthened the position of stablecoins. Stablecoins are chosen more often compared to other cryptocurrencies.
As Bloqport (an analytical resource) recently reported, the stablecoin market has grown by an impressive $1.5 billion only during the last month. Bloqport is optimistic about these figures and believes that investors are just waiting for a convenient moment to enter the cryptocurrency market. Then a sharp influx of capital into Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will cause their active growth.
However, while the market fear index is at an extreme point, such a rally cannot be expected. Moreover, at the moment, such an increase in the stability of the stablecoin market only means that players use stablecoins as a hedging tool against the cryptocurrency market itself.
The Financial Stability Board of 20 countries (G20) presented a report on the study of stablecoins. The report noted that their recent popularity can even create excessive competition for traditional money.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to Tether [link] [comments]

How Do Stablecoins Behave During Corona Time?

During this widespread chaos, the stablecoin market shows strong growth. While most cryptocurrencies have experienced a decrease in market capitalization this month, stablecoins are just about to celebrate a victory – the collapse of the cryptocurrency market affected them the least.
Recently, the volume of assets parked in stablecoins has significantly increased in the crypto market. This indicates a strong hesitation of investors.
The benefits offered by dollar-linked digital assets have indeed become particularly evident in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Recently, the authorities of several countries, including China, Iran, and Hungary, were seriously alarmed by the threat of infection of citizens through paper bills.
There is a high level of volatility and uncertainty on world markets, and it has covered not only stocks and raw materials, but also the cryptocurrency market. In this context, there has been a noticeable influx of capital into stablecoins, which caused great doubt and indecision among investors.
The total market capitalization of all stablecoins has recently reached a new record high and exceeded $7 billion. This may indicate that investors lost their positions on the volatile and disappointing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies – at the same time, they still were not ready to completely say goodbye to the cryptocurrency market.

The economy is sagging — stablecoins are getting stronger

Recent weeks have been difficult for traders, no matter what they trade. World stocks, oil, gold, Bitcoin – all assets were thrown up and down, as the destructive consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for the world economy became increasingly apparent.
Meanwhile, among all this chaos, this market segment continues to demonstrate not only sustainability but also growth.
However, due to a sharp drop in the value of assets against which USDT is traded, Tether's trading volume fell 20% from $60 billion to $48 billion over the same period.
Stablecoin is a relatively young phenomenon in the crypto industry, nevertheless, it quickly gained popularity among traders who want to withdraw their funds from the volatile Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies, but not to leave the cryptocurrency market. Players consider stablecoins an island of stability due to their attachment to more traditional currencies and assets.
At the end of 2017, the market capitalization of the stablecoins did not reach $1 billion. By mid-2018, this figure exceeded $3 billion. At the end of January of this year, BeInCrypto editors reported that at the time of publication, there had been placed about $6 billion of stablecoins awaiting a signal to enter the market.

Over $7 billion at a low start

Since then, this figure has grown significantly again. Currently, the massive panic in world markets has further strengthened the position of stablecoins. Stablecoins are chosen more often compared to other cryptocurrencies.
As Bloqport (an analytical resource) recently reported, the stablecoin market has grown by an impressive $1.5 billion only during the last month. Bloqport is optimistic about these figures and believes that investors are just waiting for a convenient moment to enter the cryptocurrency market. Then a sharp influx of capital into Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will cause their active growth.
However, while the market fear index is at an extreme point, such a rally cannot be expected. Moreover, at the moment, such an increase in the stability of the stablecoin market only means that players use stablecoins as a hedging tool against the cryptocurrency market itself.
The Financial Stability Board of 20 countries (G20) presented a report on the study of stablecoins. The report noted that their recent popularity can even create excessive competition for traditional money.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to StableCoins [link] [comments]

How Do Stablecoins Behave During Corona Time?

During this widespread chaos, the stablecoin market shows strong growth. While most cryptocurrencies have experienced a decrease in market capitalization this month, stablecoins are just about to celebrate a victory – the collapse of the cryptocurrency market affected them the least.
Recently, the volume of assets parked in stablecoins has significantly increased in the crypto market. This indicates a strong hesitation of investors.
The benefits offered by dollar-linked digital assets have indeed become particularly evident in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Recently, the authorities of several countries, including China, Iran, and Hungary, were seriously alarmed by the threat of infection of citizens through paper bills.
There is a high level of volatility and uncertainty on world markets, and it has covered not only stocks and raw materials, but also the cryptocurrency market. In this context, there has been a noticeable influx of capital into stablecoins, which caused great doubt and indecision among investors.
The total market capitalization of all stablecoins has recently reached a new record high and exceeded $7 billion. This may indicate that investors lost their positions on the volatile and disappointing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies – at the same time, they still were not ready to completely say goodbye to the cryptocurrency market.

The economy is sagging — stablecoins are getting stronger

Recent weeks have been difficult for traders, no matter what they trade. World stocks, oil, gold, Bitcoin – all assets were thrown up and down, as the destructive consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for the world economy became increasingly apparent.
Meanwhile, among all this chaos, this market segment continues to demonstrate not only sustainability but also growth.
However, due to a sharp drop in the value of assets against which USDT is traded, Tether's trading volume fell 20% from $60 billion to $48 billion over the same period.
Stablecoin is a relatively young phenomenon in the crypto industry, nevertheless, it quickly gained popularity among traders who want to withdraw their funds from the volatile Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies, but not to leave the cryptocurrency market. Players consider stablecoins an island of stability due to their attachment to more traditional currencies and assets.
At the end of 2017, the market capitalization of the stablecoins did not reach $1 billion. By mid-2018, this figure exceeded $3 billion. At the end of January of this year, BeInCrypto editors reported that at the time of publication, there had been placed about $6 billion of stablecoins awaiting a signal to enter the market.

Over $7 billion at a low start

Since then, this figure has grown significantly again. Currently, the massive panic in world markets has further strengthened the position of stablecoins. Stablecoins are chosen more often compared to other cryptocurrencies.
As Bloqport (an analytical resource) recently reported, the stablecoin market has grown by an impressive $1.5 billion only during the last month. Bloqport is optimistic about these figures and believes that investors are just waiting for a convenient moment to enter the cryptocurrency market. Then a sharp influx of capital into Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will cause their active growth.
However, while the market fear index is at an extreme point, such a rally cannot be expected. Moreover, at the moment, such an increase in the stability of the stablecoin market only means that players use stablecoins as a hedging tool against the cryptocurrency market itself.
The Financial Stability Board of 20 countries (G20) presented a report on the study of stablecoins. The report noted that their recent popularity can even create excessive competition for traditional money.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

How Do Stablecoins Behave During Corona Time?

During this widespread chaos, the stablecoin market shows strong growth. While most cryptocurrencies have experienced a decrease in market capitalization this month, stablecoins are just about to celebrate a victory – the collapse of the cryptocurrency market affected them the least.
Recently, the volume of assets parked in stablecoins has significantly increased in the crypto market. This indicates a strong hesitation of investors.
The benefits offered by dollar-linked digital assets have indeed become particularly evident in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Recently, the authorities of several countries, including China, Iran, and Hungary, were seriously alarmed by the threat of infection of citizens through paper bills.
There is a high level of volatility and uncertainty on world markets, and it has covered not only stocks and raw materials, but also the cryptocurrency market. In this context, there has been a noticeable influx of capital into stablecoins, which caused great doubt and indecision among investors.
The total market capitalization of all stablecoins has recently reached a new record high and exceeded $7 billion. This may indicate that investors lost their positions on the volatile and disappointing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies – at the same time, they still were not ready to completely say goodbye to the cryptocurrency market.

The economy is sagging — stablecoins are getting stronger

Recent weeks have been difficult for traders, no matter what they trade. World stocks, oil, gold, Bitcoin – all assets were thrown up and down, as the destructive consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for the world economy became increasingly apparent.
Meanwhile, among all this chaos, this market segment continues to demonstrate not only sustainability but also growth.
However, due to a sharp drop in the value of assets against which USDT is traded, Tether's trading volume fell 20% from $60 billion to $48 billion over the same period.
Stablecoin is a relatively young phenomenon in the crypto industry, nevertheless, it quickly gained popularity among traders who want to withdraw their funds from the volatile Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies, but not to leave the cryptocurrency market. Players consider stablecoins an island of stability due to their attachment to more traditional currencies and assets.
At the end of 2017, the market capitalization of the stablecoins did not reach $1 billion. By mid-2018, this figure exceeded $3 billion. At the end of January of this year, BeInCrypto editors reported that at the time of publication, there had been placed about $6 billion of stablecoins awaiting a signal to enter the market.

Over $7 billion at a low start

Since then, this figure has grown significantly again. Currently, the massive panic in world markets has further strengthened the position of stablecoins. Stablecoins are chosen more often compared to other cryptocurrencies.
As Bloqport (an analytical resource) recently reported, the stablecoin market has grown by an impressive $1.5 billion only during the last month. Bloqport is optimistic about these figures and believes that investors are just waiting for a convenient moment to enter the cryptocurrency market. Then a sharp influx of capital into Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will cause their active growth.
However, while the market fear index is at an extreme point, such a rally cannot be expected. Moreover, at the moment, such an increase in the stability of the stablecoin market only means that players use stablecoins as a hedging tool against the cryptocurrency market itself.
The Financial Stability Board of 20 countries (G20) presented a report on the study of stablecoins. The report noted that their recent popularity can even create excessive competition for traditional money.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to u/CoinjoyAssistant [link] [comments]

Weekly Wrap 27/03

Market News
Bitcoin managed to successfully close above $6400 this week and has held this level well. We have seen attempts to break $7000 and are still expecting a move to $7200 should this level continue the hold. Bitcoin has rebounded 80% from its lows since the crash over the past 2 weeks. The overall market is looking extremely bullish and the Dow Jones had its best day in 87 years on Wednesday. The index is now 20% up from its low.
Monero was the top performer for the week, having almost doubled in price in the last two weeks. Ripple, Neo, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin were also amongst the top performers, all increasing by over 10% in the past week.
A key piece of news that dominated the headlines this week is the announcement by the Fed regarding their new open-ended quantitative easing. This means they will be buying treasury bonds and mortgage-related securities in whatever quantities they deem necessary, in an attempt to buoy consumer demand through fiscal stimulus. This has put cryptoassets in the spotlight and highlighted the systematic instabilities that exist in traditional markets. Gold and crypto supporters are convinced that fiat is proving to be an unreliable financial system and that this will lead to increased demand for cryptoassets.
Industry News
Other News
submitted by Camaa to InvictusCapital [link] [comments]

Weekly Wrap 27/03

Market News
Bitcoin managed to successfully close above $6400 this week and has held this level well. We have seen attempts to break $7000 and are still expecting a move to $7200 should this level continue the hold. Bitcoin has rebounded 80% from its lows since the crash over the past 2 weeks. The overall market is looking extremely bullish and the Dow Jones had its best day in 87 years on Wednesday. The index is now 20% up from its low.
Monero was the top performer for the week, having almost doubled in price in the last two weeks. Ripple, Neo, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin were also amongst the top performers, all increasing by over 10% in the past week.
A key piece of news that dominated the headlines this week is the announcement by the Fed regarding their new open-ended quantitative easing. This means they will be buying treasury bonds and mortgage-related securities in whatever quantities they deem necessary, in an attempt to buoy consumer demand through fiscal stimulus. This has put cryptoassets in the spotlight and highlighted the systematic instabilities that exist in traditional markets. Gold and crypto supporters are convinced that fiat is proving to be an unreliable financial system and that this will lead to increased demand for cryptoassets.
Industry News
Other News
submitted by Camaa to cryptotwenty [link] [comments]

Nikkei Index Finally Recovers to 1990 Levels, Points to Bitcoin

Investors who bought Japanese stocks in 1990 are 1% away from breaking even, 29 years later. The staggering statistic was reported via Twitter. Does Bitcoin represent a safer investment?
https://imgur.com/rOIGlUb

Bitcoin as a Hedge?

The statistics shed some light on the current all-time highs in the US stock market. While market euphoria remains, a similar decline could leave a generation of investors behind.
Bitcoin followed a similar trajectory, rising briefly to $20,000, only to fall to less than half. Still, many would argue that the first cryptocurrency is a better risk than equities overall. In spite of its volatility, Bitcoin can be considered a hedge investment against just this type of equity loss.
Inflation plays a role in the value of an investment over time. While the Yen has lost value over the past 30 years, Bitcoin is protected from inflation. Even with new coins being minted every day as block generation continues, the coin will forever keep its 21 million hard cap.
Source
submitted by DiggingTech to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Can bitcoin and cryptocurrencies be a protective asset during a recession?

Can bitcoin and cryptocurrencies be a protective asset during a recession?
Cryptocurrency during recession.
With this material, we continue the series of articles on the correlation of cryptocurrencies. In the first article, we focused on the correlation of Bitcoin with other coins, in the second article, on the relationship between the cryptocurrency and the traditional market. For a more complete understanding of the topic, we will figure out what factors affect the capitalization of cryptocurrencies.
The inflow of capital to the cryptocurrency market occurs when investors want to ignore all kinds of risks. Otherwise, there is a decline in the market. For many people, this seems like something unrealistic, but the way it really is. This dependence is poorly expressed, but it exists and provides some food for thought when forecasting interest in cryptos.
Let’s try to visualize how investor interest in risk is changing. In the indicator that we show below, we will include the dynamics of changes in the cost of raw materials and gold, the capitalization of the largest stock markets and the level of government bond yield. Using information on mood swings in the market, we will find out how this factor affects the value of “digital gold” (Bitcoin was taken only because it is the main cryptocurrency in the world).
Below you see the corresponding histogram (study period: August 2017 – February 2018). An increase in indicators means a panic in the market and an escape from risk, a decrease in indicators – increased demand for high-risk assets, which in the long run can bring good income.

Investor Sentiment
For greater clarity, a pivot point and a five-day midline are shown (due to the fact that the histogram is not smooth).
The received signals are plotted on a bitcoin chart. We see the following:

BTC/USD Chart
We get what we told you above: Bitcoin fluctuations correlate with fluctuations in market sentiment. Another interesting point that for some reason no one pays attention to is that investors consider Bitcoin a protective asset. Let’s talk more about this phenomenon.
A defensive asset is an asset where investors transfer their capital during financial turmoil. The main goal of this action is to protect capital from serious losses and wait out the period of time during which the market falls. Many people know that one of the most protected assets are gold, currencies of financially stable countries (for example, Switzerland or Japan), bonds. Most often, a capital during financial shocks goes there. The cryptocurrency market, in turn, is considered by some to be more risky, but at the same time more profitable, which is undoubtedly important for investors. However, this is a slightly false statement. Bitcoin’s behavior is the opposite. If an investor sees a danger to his assets in the form of, for example, a slowdown in the global economy or the prerequisites for a financial crisis, he will transfer his capital to Bitcoin. Cryptocurrency during recession
In previous articles, we proved that cryptocurrencies have a positive correlation. This tells us that the entire cryptocurrency market will grow with external problems.
To summarize the above, we note that big capital sees a protective platform in the cryptocurrencies market where it is possible to preserve and even increase its savings during a period of financial instability and it can be probably in cryptocurrency during a recession. The cryptocurrency market is the real antagonist of the modern financial system, so if you see that a serious financial cataclysm is approaching, then this is another reason to think about transferring funds to this area.
This article is not a recommendation for investment or investment in cryptocurrency, as well as perceived as investment advice. Be careful, because investing in cryptocurrencies is very risky and you need to consult with your financial advisor. Past earnings do not guarantee future earnings.
Holderlab.io is a fully automated cryptocurrency portfolio management laboratory. Analysis the cryptocurrencies correlation, searching for the optimal cryptocurrency portfolio weights. Uses crypto trading bots and the auto efficient crypto portfolio index.
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Your Guide to Monero, and Why It Has Great Potential

/////Your Guide to Monero, and Why It Has Great Potential/////

Marketing.
It's a dirty word for most members of the Monero community.
It is also one of the most divisive words in the Monero community. Yet, the lack of marketing is one of the most frustrating things for many newcomers.
This is what makes this an unusual post from a member of the Monero community.
This post is an unabashed and unsolicited analyzation of why I believe Monero to have great potential.
Below I have attempted to outline different reasons why Monero has great potential, beginning with upcoming developments and use cases, to broader economic motives, speculation, and key issues for it to overcome.
I encourage you to discuss and criticise my musings, commenting below if you feel necessary to do so.

///Upcoming Developments///

Bulletproofs - A Reduction in Transaction Sizes and Fees
Since the introduction of Ring Confidential Transactions (Ring CT), transaction amounts have been hidden in Monero, albeit at the cost of increased transaction fees and sizes. In order to mitigate this issue, Bulletproofs will soon be added to reduce both fees and transaction size by 80% to 90%. This is great news for those transacting smaller USD amounts as people commonly complained Monero's fees were too high! Not any longer though! More information can be found here. Bulletproofs are already working on the Monero testnet, and developers were aiming to introduce them in March 2018, however it could be delayed in order to ensure everything is tried and tested.
Multisig
Multisig has recently been merged! Mulitsig, also called multisignature, is the requirement for a transaction to have two or more signatures before it can be executed. Multisig transactions and addresses are indistinguishable from normal transactions and addresses in Monero, and provide more security than single-signature transactions. It is believed this will lead to additional marketplaces and exchanges to supporting Monero.
Kovri
Kovri is an implementation of the Invisible Internet Project (I2P) network. Kovri uses both garlic encryption and garlic routing to create a private, protected overlay-network across the internet. This overlay-network provides users with the ability to effectively hide their geographical location and internet IP address. The good news is Kovri is under heavy development and will be available soon. Unlike other coins' false privacy claims, Kovri is a game changer as it will further elevate Monero as the king of privacy.
Mobile Wallets
There is already a working Android Wallet called Monerujo available in the Google Play Store. X Wallet is an IOS mobile wallet. One of the X Wallet developers recently announced they are very, very close to being listed in the Apple App Store, however are having some issues with getting it approved. The official Monero IOS and Android wallets, along with the MyMonero IOS and Android wallets, are also almost ready to be released, and can be expected very soon.
Hardware Wallets
Hardware wallets are currently being developed and nearing completion. Because Monero is based on the CryptoNote protocol, it means it requires unique development in order to allow hardware wallet integration. The Ledger Nano S will be adding Monero support by the end of Q1 2018. There is a recent update here too. Even better, for the first time ever in cryptocurrency history, the Monero community banded together to fund the development of an exclusive Monero Hardware Wallet, and will be available in Q2 2018, costing only about $20! In addition, the CEO of Trezor has offered a 10BTC bounty to whoever can provide the software to allow Monero integration. Someone can be seen to already be working on that here.
TAILS Operating System Integration
Monero is in the progress of being packaged in order for it to be integrated into TAILS and ready to use upon install. TAILS is the operating system popularised by Edward Snowden and is commonly used by those requiring privacy such as journalists wanting to protect themselves and sources, human-right defenders organizing in repressive contexts, citizens facing national emergencies, domestic violence survivors escaping from their abusers, and consequently, darknet market users.
In the meantime, for those users who wish to use TAILS with Monero, u/Electric_sheep01 has provided Sheep's Noob guide to Monero GUI in Tails 3.2, which is a step-by-step guide with screenshots explaining how to setup Monero in TAILS, and is very easy to follow.
Mandatory Hardforks
Unlike other coins, Monero receives a protocol upgrade every 6 months in March and September. Think of it as a Consensus Protocol Update. Monero's hard forks ensure quality development takes place, while preventing political or ideological issues from hindering progress. When a hardfork occurs, you simply download and use the new daemon version, and your existing wallet files and copy of the blockchain remain compatible. This reddit post provides more information.
Dynamic fees
Many cryptocurrencies have an arbitrary block size limit. Although Monero has a limit, it is adaptive based on the past 100 blocks. Similarly, fees change based on transaction volume. As more transactions are processed on the Monero network, the block size limit slowly increases and the fees slowly decrease. The opposite effect also holds true. This means that the more transactions that take place, the cheaper the fees!
Tail Emission and Inflation
There will be around 18.4 million Monero mined at the end of May 2022. However, tail emission will kick in after that which is 0.6 XMR, so it has no fixed limit. Gundamlancer explains that Monero's "main emission curve will issue about 18.4 million coins to be mined in approximately 8 years. (more precisely 18.132 Million coins by ca. end of May 2022) After that, a constant "tail emission" of 0.6 XMR per 2-minutes block (modified from initially equivalent 0.3 XMR per 1-minute block) will create a sub-1% perpetual inflatio starting with 0.87% yearly inflation around May 2022) to prevent the lack of incentives for miners once a currency is not mineable anymore.
Monero Research Lab
Monero has a group of anonymous/pseudo-anonymous university academics actively researching, developing, and publishing academic papers in order to improve Monero. See here and here. The Monero Research Lab are acquainted with other members of cryptocurrency academic community to ensure when new research or technology is uncovered, it can be reviewed and decided upon whether it would be beneficial to Monero. This ensures Monero will always remain a leading cryptocurrency. A recent end of 2017 update from a MRL researcher can be found here.

///Monero's Technology - Rising Above The Rest///

Monero Has Already Proven Itself To Be Private, Secure, Untraceable, and Trustless
Monero is the only private, untraceable, trustless, secure and fungible cryptocurrency. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are TRACEABLE through the use of blockchain analytics, and has lead to the prosecution of numerous individuals, such as the alleged Alphabay administrator Alexandre Cazes. In the Forfeiture Complaint which detailed the asset seizure of Alexandre Cazes, the anonymity capabilities of Monero were self-demonstrated by the following statement of the officials after the AlphaBay shutdown: "In total, from CAZES' wallets and computer agents took control of approximately $8,800,000 in Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero and Zcash, broken down as follows: 1,605.0503851 Bitcoin, 8,309.271639 Ethereum, 3,691.98 Zcash, and an unknown amount of Monero".
Privacy CANNOT BE OPTIONAL and must be at a PROTOCOL LEVEL. With Monero, privacy is mandatory, so that everyone gets the benefits of privacy without any transactions standing out as suspicious. This is the reason Darknet Market places are moving to Monero, and will never use Verge, Zcash, Dash, Pivx, Sumo, Spectre, Hush or any other coins that lack good privacy. Peter Todd (who was involved in the Zcash trusted setup ceremony) recently reiterated his concerns of optional privacy after Jeffrey Quesnelle published his recent paper stating 31.5% of Zcash transactions may be traceable, and that only ~1% of the transactions are pure privacy transactions (i.e., z -> z transactions). When the attempted private transactions stand out like a sore thumb there is no privacy, hence why privacy cannot be optional. In addition, in order for a cryptocurrency to truly be private, it must not be controlled by a centralised body, such as a company or organisation, because it opens it up to government control and restrictions. This is no joke, but Zcash is supported by DARPA and the Israeli government!.
Monero provides a stark contrast compared to other supposed privacy coins, in that Monero does not have a rich list! With all other coins, you can view wallet balances on the blockexplorers. You can view Monero's non-existent rich list here to see for yourself.
I will reiterate here that Monero is TRUSTLESS. You don't need to rely on anyone else to protect your privacy, or worry about others colluding to learn more about you. No one can censor your transaction or decide to intervene. Monero is immutable, unlike Zcash, in which the lead developer Zooko publicly tweeted the possibility of providing a backdoor for authorities to trace transactions. To Zcash's demise, Zooko famously tweeted:
" And by the way, I think we can successfully make Zcash too traceable for criminals like WannaCry, but still completely private & fungible. …"
Ethereum's track record of immutability is also poor. Ethereum was supposed to be an immutable blockchain ledger, however after the DAO hack this proved to not be the case. A 2016 article on Saintly Law summarised the problematic nature of Ethereum's leadership and blockchain intervention:
" Many ethereum and blockchain advocates believe that the intervention was the wrong move to make in this situation. Smart contracts are meant to be self-executing, immutable and free from disturbance by organisations and intermediaries. Yet the building block of all smart contracts, the code, is inherently imperfect. This means that the technology is vulnerable to the same malicious hackers that are targeting businesses and governments. It is also clear that the large scale intervention after the DAO hack could not and would not likely be taken in smaller transactions, as they greatly undermine the viability of the cryptocurrency and the technology."
Monero provides Fungibility and Privacy in a Cashless World
As outlined on GetMonero.org, fungibility is the property of a currency whereby two units can be substituted in place of one another. Fungibility means that two units of a currency can be mutually substituted and the substituted currency is equal to another unit of the same size. For example, two $10 bills can be exchanged and they are functionally identical to any other $10 bill in circulation (although $10 bills have unique ID numbers and are therefore not completely fungible). Gold is probably a closer example of true fungibility, where any 1 oz. of gold of the same grade is worth the same as another 1 oz. of gold. Monero is fungible due to the nature of the currency which provides no way to link transactions together nor trace the history of any particular XMR. 1 XMR is functionally identical to any other 1 XMR. Fungibility is an advantage Monero has over Bitcoin and almost every other cryptocurrency, due to the privacy inherent in the Monero blockchain and the permanently traceable nature of the Bitcoin blockchain. With Bitcoin, any BTC can be tracked by anyone back to its creation coinbase transaction. Therefore, if a coin has been used for an illegal purpose in the past, this history will be contained in the blockchain in perpetuity.
A great example of Bitcoin's lack of fungibility was reposted by u/ViolentlyPeaceful:
"Imagine you sell cupcakes and receive Bitcoin as payment. It turns out that someone who owned that Bitcoin before you was involved in criminal activity. Now you are worried that you have become a suspect in a criminal case, because the movement of funds to you is a matter of public record. You are also worried that certain Bitcoins that you thought you owned will be considered ‘tainted’ and that others will refuse to accept them as payment."
This lack of fungibility means that certain businesses will be obligated to avoid accepting BTC that have been previously used for purposes which are illegal, or simply run afoul of their Terms of Service. Currently some large Bitcoin companies are blocking, suspending, or closing accounts that have received Bitcoin used in online gambling or other purposes deemed unsavory by said companies. Monero has been built specifically to address the problem of traceability and non-fungibility inherent in other cryptocurrencies. By having completely private transactions Monero is truly fungible and there can be no blacklisting of certain XMR, while at the same time providing all the benefits of a secure, decentralized, permanent blockchain.
The world is moving cashless. Fact. The ramifications of this are enormous as we move into a cashless world in which transactions will be tracked and there is a potential for data to be used by third parties for adverse purposes. While most new cryptocurrency investors speculate upon vaporware ICO tokens in the hope of generating wealth, Monero provides salvation for those in which financial privacy is paramount. Too often people equate Monero's features with criminal endeavors. Privacy is not a crime, and is necessary for good money. Transparency in Monero is possible OFF-CHAIN, which offers greater transparency and flexibility. For example, a Monero user may share their Private View Key with their accountant for tax purposes.
Monero aims to be adopted by more than just those with nefarious use cases. For example, if you lived in an oppressive religious regime and wanted to buy a certain item, using Monero would allow you to exchange value privately and across borders if needed. Another example is that if everybody can see how much cryptocurrency you have in your wallet, then a certain service might decide to charge you more, and bad actors could even use knowledge of your wallet balance to target you for extortion purposes. For example, a Russian cryptocurrency blogger was recently beaten and robbed of $425k. This is why FUNGIBILITY IS ESSENTIAL. To summarise this in a nutshell:
"A lack of fungibility means that when sending or receiving funds, if the other person personally knows you during a transaction, or can get any sort of information on you, or if you provide a residential address for shipping etc. – you could quite potentially have them use this against you for personal gain"
For those that wish to seek more information about why Monero is a superior form of money, read The Merits of Monero: Why Monero Vs Bitcoin over on the Monero.how website.
Monero's Humble Origins
Something that still rings true today despite the great influx of money into cryptocurrencies was outlined in Nick Tomaino's early 2016 opinion piece. The author claimed that "one of the most interesting aspects of Monero is that the project has gained traction without a crowd sale pre-launch, without VC funding and any company or well-known investors and without a pre-mine. Like Bitcoin in the early days, Monero has been a purely grassroots movement that was bootstrapped by the creator and adopted organically without any institutional buy-in. The creator and most of the core developers serve the community pseudonymously and the project was launched on a message board (similar to the way Bitcoin was launched on an email newsletter)."
The Organic Growth of the Monero Community
The Monero community over at monero is exponentially growing. You can view the Monero reddit metrics here and see that the Monero subreddit currently gains more than 10,000 (yes, ten thousand!) new subscribers every 10 days! Compare this to most of the other coins out there, and it proves to be one of the only projects with real organic growth. In addition to this, the community subreddits are specifically divided to ensure the main subreddit remains unbiased, tech focused, with no shilling or hype. All trading talk is designated to xmrtrader, and all memes at moonero.
Forum Funding System
While most contributors have gratefully volunteered their time to the project, Monero also has a Forum Funding System in which money is donated by community members to ensure it attracts and retains the brightest minds and most skilled developers. Unlike ICOs and other cryptocurrencies, Monero never had a premine, and does not have a developer tax. If ANYONE requires funding for a Monero related project, then they can simply request funding from the community, and if the community sees it as beneficial, they will donate. Types of projects range from Monero funding for local meet ups, to paying developers for their work.
Monero For Goods, Services, and Market Places
There is a growing number of online goods and services that you can now pay for with Monero. Globee is a service that allows online merchants to accept payments through credit cards and a host of cryptocurrencies, while being settled in Bitcoin, Monero or fiat currency. Merchants can reach a wider variety of customers, while not needing to invest in additional hardware to run cryptocurrency wallets or accept the current instability of the cryptocurrency market. Globee uses all of the open source API's that BitPay does making integrations much easier!
Project Coral Reef is a service which allows you to shop and pay for popular music band products and services using Monero.
Linux, Veracrypt, and a whole array of VPNs now accept Monero.
There is a new Monero only marketplace called Annularis currently being developed which has been created for those who value financial privacy and economic freedom, and there are rumours Open Bazaar is likely to support Monero once Multisig is implemented.
In addition, Monero is also supported by The Living Room of Satoshi so you can pay bills or credit cards directly using Monero.
Monero can be found on a growing number of cryptocurrency exchange services such as Bittrex, Poloniex, Cryptopia, Shapeshift, Changelly, Bitfinex, Kraken, Bisq, Tux, and many others.
For those wishing to purchase Monero anonymously, there are services such as LocalMonero.co and Moneroforcash.com.
With XMR.TO you can pay Bitcoin addresses directly with Monero. There are no other fees than the miner ones. All user records are purged after 48 hours. XMR.TO has also been added as an embedded feature into the Monerujo android wallet.
Coinhive Browser-Based Mining
Unlike Bitcoin, Monero can be mined using CPUs and GPUs. Not only does this encourage decentralisation, it also opens the door to browser based mining. Enter side of stage, Coinhive browser-based mining. As described by Hon Lau on the Symnatec Blog Browser-based mining, as its name suggests, is a method of cryptocurrency mining that happens inside a browser and is implemented using Javascript. Coinhive is marketed as an alternative to browser ad revenue. The motivation behind this is simple: users pay for the content indirectly by coin mining when they visit the site and website owners don't have to bother users with sites laden with ads, trackers, and all the associated paraphern. This is great, provided that the websites are transparent with site visitors and notify users of the mining that will be taking place, or better still, offer users a way to opt in, although this hasn't always been the case thus far.
Skepticism Sunday
The main Monero subreddit has weekly Skepticism Sundays which was created with the purpose of installing "a culture of being scientific, skeptical, and rational". This is used to have open, critical discussions about monero as a technology, it's economics, and so on.

///Speculation///

Major Investors And Crypto Figureheads Are Interested
Ari Paul is the co-founder and CIO of BlockTower Capital. He was previously a portfolio manager for the University of Chicago's $8 billion endowment, and a derivatives market maker and proprietary trader for Susquehanna International Group. Paul was interviewed on CNBC on the 26th of December and when asked what was his favourite coin was, he stated "One that has real fundamental value besides from Bitcoin is Monero" and said it has "very strong engineering". In addition, when he was asked if that was the one used by criminals, he replied "Everything is used by criminals including the US dollar and the Euro". Paul later supported these claims on Twitter, recommending only Bitcoin and Monero as long-term investments.
There are reports that "Roger Ver, earlier known as 'Bitcoin Jesus' for his evangelical support of the Bitcoin during its early years, said his investment in Monero is 'substantial' and his biggest in any virtual currency since Bitcoin.
Charlie Lee, the creator of Litecoin, has publicly stated his appreciation of Monero. In a September 2017 tweet directed to Edward Snowden explaining why Monero is superior to Zcash, Charlie Lee tweeted:
All private transactions, More tested privacy tech, No tax on miners to pay investors, No high inflation... better investment.
John McAfee, arguably cryptocurrency's most controversial character at the moment, has publicly supported Monero numerous times over the last twelve months(before he started shilling ICOs), and has even claimed it will overtake Bitcoin.
Playboy instagram celebrity Dan Bilzerian is a Monero investor, with 15% of his portfolio made up of Monero.
Finally, while he may not be considered a major investor or figurehead, Erik Finman, a young early Bitcoin investor and multimillionaire, recently appeared in a CNBC Crypto video interview, explaining why he isn't entirely sold on Bitcoin anymore, and expresses his interest in Monero, stating:
"Monero is a really good one. Monero is an incredible currency, it's completely private."
There is a common belief that most of the money in cryptocurrency is still chasing the quick pump and dumps, however as the market matures, more money will flow into legitimate projects such as Monero. Monero's organic growth in price is evidence smart money is aware of Monero and gradually filtering in.
The Bitcoin Flaw
A relatively unknown blogger named CryptoIzzy posted three poignant pieces regarding Monero and its place in the world. The Bitcoin Flaw: Monero Rising provides an intellectual comparison of Monero to other cryptocurrencies, and Valuing Cryptocurrencies: An Approach outlines methods of valuing different coins.
CryptoIzzy's most recent blog published only yesterday titled Monero Valuation - Update and Refocus is a highly recommended read. It touches on why Monero is much more than just a coin for the Darknet Markets, and provides a calculated future price of Monero.
CryptoIzzy also published The Power of Money: A Case for Bitcoin, which is an exploration of our monetary system, and the impact decentralised cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Monero will have on the world. In the epilogue the author also provides a positive and detailed future valuation based on empirical evidence. CryptoIzzy predicts Monero to easily progress well into the four figure range.
Monero Has a Relatively Small Marketcap
Recently we have witnessed many newcomers to cryptocurrency neglecting to take into account coins' marketcap and circulating supply, blindly throwing money at coins under $5 with inflated marketcaps and large circulating supplies, and then believing it's possible for them to reach $100 because someone posted about it on Facebook or Reddit.
Compared to other cryptocurrencies, Monero still has a low marketcap, which means there is great potential for the price to multiply. At the time of writing, according to CoinMarketCap, Monero's marketcap is only a little over $5 billion, with a circulating supply of 15.6 million Monero, at a price of $322 per coin.
For this reason, I would argue that this is evidence Monero is grossly undervalued. Just a few billion dollars of new money invested in Monero can cause significant price increases. Monero's marketcap only needs to increase to ~$16 billion and the price will triple to over $1000. If Monero's marketcap simply reached ~$35 billion (just over half of Ripple's $55 billion marketcap), Monero's price will increase 600% to over $2000 per coin.
Another way of looking at this is Monero's marketcap only requires ~$30 billion of new investor money to see the price per Monero reach $2000, while for Ethereum to reach $2000, Ethereum's marketcap requires a whopping ~$100 billion of new investor money.
Technical Analysis
There are numerous Monero technical analysts, however none more eerily on point than the crowd-pleasing Ero23. Ero23's charts and analysis can be found on Trading View. Ero23 gained notoriety for his long-term Bitcoin bull chart published in February, which is still in play today. Head over to his Trading View page to see his chart: Monero's dwindling supply. $10k in 2019 scenario, in which Ero23 predicts Monero to reach $10,000 in 2019. There is also this chart which appears to be freakishly accurate and is tracking along perfectly today.
Coinbase Rumours
Over the past 12 months there have been ongoing rumours that Monero will be one of the next cryptocurrencies to be added to Coinbase. In January 2017, Monero Core team member Riccardo 'Fluffypony' Spagni presented a talk at Coinbase HQ. In addition, in November 2017 GDAX announced the GDAX Digit Asset Framework outlining specific parameters cryptocurrencies must meet in order to be added to the exchange. There is speculation that when Monero has numerous mobile and hardware wallets available, and multisig is working, then it will be added. This would enable public accessibility to Monero to increase dramatically as Coinbase had in excess of 13 million users as of December, and is only going to grow as demand for cryptocurrencies increases. Many users argue that due to KYC/AML regulations, Coinbase will never be able to add Monero, however the Kraken exchange already operates in the US and has XMfiat pairs, so this is unlikely to be the reason Coinbase is yet to implement XMfiat trading.
Monero Is Not an ICO Scam
It is likely most of the ICOs which newcomers invest in, hoping to get rich quick, won't even be in the Top 100 cryptocurrencies next year. A large portion are most likely to be pumps and dumps, and we have already seen numerous instances of ICO exit scams. Once an ICO raises millions of dollars, the developers or CEO of the company have little incentive to bother rolling out their product or service when they can just cash out and leave. The majority of people who create a company to provide a service or product, do so in order to generate wealth. Unless these developers and CEOs are committed and believed in their product or service, it's likely that the funds raised during the ICO will far exceed any revenue generated from real world use cases.
Monero is a Working Currency, Today
Monero is a working currency, here today.
The majority of so called cryptocurrencies that exist today are not true currencies, and do not aim to be. They are a token of exchange. They are like a share in a start-up company hoping to use blockchain technology to succeed in business. A crypto-assest is a more accurate name for coins such as Ethereum, Neo, Cardano, Vechain, etc.
Monero isn't just a vaporware ICO token that promises to provide a blockchain service in the future. It is not a platform for apps. It is not a pump and dump coin.
Monero is the only coin with all the necessary properties to be called true money.
Monero is private internet money.
Some even describe Monero as an online Swiss Bank Account or Bitcoin 2.0, and it is here to continue on from Bitcoin's legacy.
Monero is alleviating the public from the grips of banks, and protests the monetary system forced upon us.
Monero only achieved this because it is the heart and soul, and blood, sweat, and tears of the contributors to this project. Monero supporters are passionate, and Monero has gotten to where it is today thanks to its contributors and users.

///Key Issues for Monero to Overcome///

Scalability
While Bulletproofs are soon to be implemented in order to improve Monero's transaction sizes and fees, scalability is an issue for Monero that is continuously being assessed by Monero's researchers and developers to find the most appropriate solution. Ricardo 'Fluffypony' Spagni recently appeared on CNBC's Crypto Trader, and when asked whether Monero is scalable as it stands today, Spagni stated that presently, Monero's on-chain scaling is horrible and transactions are larger than Bitcoin's (because of Monero's privacy features), so side-chain scaling may be more efficient. Spagni elaborated that the Monero team is, and will always be, looking for solutions to an array of different on-chain and off-chain scaling options, such as developing a Mimblewimble side-chain, exploring the possibility of Lightning Network so atomic swaps can be performed, and Tumblebit.
In a post on the Monero subreddit from roughly a month ago, monero moderator u/dEBRUYNE_1 supports Spagni's statements. dEBRUYNE_1 clarifies the issue of scalability:
"In Bitcoin, the main chain is constrained and fees are ludicrous. This results in users being pushed to second layer stuff (e.g. sidechains, lightning network). Users do not have optionality in Bitcoin. In Monero, the goal is to make the main-chain accessible to everyone by keeping fees reasonable. We want users to have optionality, i.e., let them choose whether they'd like to use the main chain or second layer stuff. We don't want to take that optionality away from them."
When the Spagni CNBC video was recently linked to the Monero subreddit, it was met with lengthy debate and discussion from both users and developers. u/ferretinjapan summarised the issue explaining:
"Monero has all the mechanisms it needs to find the balance between transaction load, and offsetting the costs of miner infrastructure/profits, while making sure the network is useful for users. But like the interviewer said, the question is directed at "right now", and Fluffys right to a certain extent, Monero's transactions are huge, and compromises in blockchain security will help facilitate less burdensome transactional activity in the future. But to compare Monero to Bitcoin's transaction sizes is somewhat silly as Bitcoin is nowhere near as useful as monero, and utility will facilitate infrastructure building that may eventually utterly dwarf Bitcoin. And to equate scaling based on a node being run on a desktop being the only option for what classifies as "scalable" is also an incredibly narrow interpretation of the network being able to scale, or not. Given the extremely narrow definition of scaling people love to (incorrectly) use, I consider that a pretty crap question to put to Fluffy in the first place, but... ¯_(ツ)_/¯"
u/xmrusher also contributed to the discussion, comparing Bitcoin to Monero using this analogous description:
"While John is much heavier than Henry, he's still able to run faster, because, unlike Henry, he didn't chop off his own legs just so the local wheelchair manufacturer can make money. While Morono has much larger transactions then Bitcoin, it still scales better, because, unlike Bitcoin, it hasn't limited itself to a cripplingly tiny blocksize just to allow Blockstream to make money."
Setting up a wallet can still be time consuming
It's time consuming and can be somewhat difficult for new cryptocurrency users to set up their own wallet using the GUI wallet or the Command Line Wallet. In order to strengthen and further decentralize the Monero network, users are encouraged to run a full node for their wallet, however this can be an issue because it can take up to 24-48 hours for some users depending on their hard-drive and internet speeds. To mitigate this issue, users can run a remote node, meaning they can remotely connect their wallet to another node in order to perform transactions, and in the meantime continue to sync the daemon so in the future they can then use their own node.
For users that do run into wallet setup issues, or any other problems for that matter, there is an extremely helpful troubleshooting thread on the Monero subreddit which can be found here. And not only that, unlike some other cryptocurrency subreddits, if you ask a question, there is always a friendly community member who will happily assist you. Monero.how is a fantastic resource too!
Despite still being difficult to use, the user-base and price may increase dramatically once it is easier to use. In addition, others believe that when hardware wallets are available more users will shift to Monero.

///Conclusion///

I actually still feel a little shameful for promoting Monero here, but feel a sense of duty to do so.
Monero is transitioning into an unstoppable altruistic beast. This year offers the implementation of many great developments, accompanied by the likelihood of a dramatic increase in price.
I request you discuss this post, point out any errors I have made, or any information I may have neglected to include. Also, if you believe in the Monero project, I encourage you to join your local Facebook or Reddit cryptocurrency group and spread the word of Monero. You could even link this post there to bring awareness to new cryptocurrency users and investors.
I will leave you with an old on-going joke within the Monero community - Don't buy Monero - unless you have a use case for it of course :-) Just think to yourself though - Do I have a use case for Monero in our unpredictable Huxleyan society? Hint: The answer is ?
Edit: Added in the Tail Emission section, and noted Dan Bilzerian as a Monero investor. Also added information regarding the XMR.TO payment service. Added info about hardfork
submitted by johnfoss69 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

GET ACQUAINTED WITH GOLD STABLECOIN

GET ACQUAINTED WITH GOLD STABLECOIN

https://preview.redd.it/amaehgcbirh41.png?width=550&format=png&auto=webp&s=e631068435ed34068f8ff0f54f8e526bcd1daf68
The markets and news that we find in the media are unique. On one hand, they guaranteed us that putting resources into digital gold could give us huge profits in a short measure of time. Then again, the instability of the estimation of this cash cautions us that what we produce rapidly can be lost similarly. Unique financial specialists disclose to us that we are cautious and we first educate ourselves concerning it. There are additionally different perils that enlighten us concerning the helplessness of this digital cash.
Digital gold speculation financial specialists have another option, yet is it totally protected? To analyze the two Gold versus venture frameworks Bitcoin, we will make a rundown of characteristics that portray each:
DIGITAL GOLD — GOLD token — Your gold venture course of action!
In the wake of understanding the gold purchase and venture plot in physical structure that feels debilitating, it isn't unprecedented for someone to dishearten to buying gold and start put resources into gold.
Right now, GOLD is here to vanquish each present issue related to gold purchases and ventures by working up a token — GOLD token.
GOLD tokens — a continuously utilitarian gold
DIGITAL GOLD Ltd — an association that uses Blockchain advancement in working up its endeavors, beginning at 10–09–2019 has officially impelled the platform and GOLD token.
By using Blockchain development which has been known as worth organization and an increasingly splendid and dynamically viable accumulating structure, DIGITAL GOLD has made a platform that has distinctive creative features that empower you to buy and store physical gold consideration in a brief instant yet remain secretive through GOLD token, a token subject to Ethereum ERC20.
GOLD token — StableCoin
DIGITAL GOLD guarantees the estimation of GOLD tokens since GOLD token of 100% supported by physical gold set aside in a shielded vault, the expense of each GOLD token counterparts the expense of 1 gram of unadulterated gold and is honestly associated with the spot cost of gold consistently.
Fiat Gold Speculations with Digital Assets
It is never again mystery that numerous blockchain-based ventures discharge digital assets as crypto tokens and crypto coins. Those are intended to give the speculators the counterparts of the sum they put resources into the activities.
Under the Digital Gold platform, speculators are permitted to utilize the GOLD Token to procure numerous grams of FINE Gold, which is put away in a committed vault disconnected.
Most extreme Protection
You would prefer not to be the cynosure of everyone's eyes. You should be working secretly without having anyone checking what you are doing. Being that gold is an asset that acknowledges and has expanding market esteem, you would prefer not to court consideration.
The Digital Gold platform gives you greatest protection. In the first place, it permits you to exploit the obscurity of its blockchain arrange. Second and generally significant, it covers and privatizes the characters of clients, similarly as it permits you to utilize a private digital wallet for all exchanges.
Decreased Expenses
You aren't to be exhausted with paying incalculable expenses. If you paid the base expense charged by the platform for exchanges, you might be permitted to do different exchanges without paying more charges.
Final Conclusion
As a final product, we can say that GOLD is a virtual crypto element this is ceaselessly bought by means of substantial gold when a marker is separated and spared in an impermeable vault in Singapore.
GOLD is a protected, helpful and fast response that fills a determination of needs, from raising money and portfolio broadening to strong exchanges and gifting to family.
Gold coin is an undeniable money related gadget, in which real gold bought through our business endeavor meets flawlessly in genuine time as opposed to the measure of coin gave.
For more information about the project visit:
Website: https://gold.storage/
Whitepaper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
ANN Thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5161544
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Medium: https://medium.com/@digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.com/gold_erc20
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/golderc20
Bitcointalk username: Oyetunde1
Bitcointalk url: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=1194023;sa=summary
submitted by obbebby to CryptoKami [link] [comments]

End of day summary - 08/12

The Dow fell 391.00, or 1.49%, to 25,896.44, the Nasdaq lost 95.73, or 1.2%, to 7,863.41, and the S&P 500 declined 35.95, or 1.23%, to 2,882.70.
The stock market fell more than 1% on Monday, as uncertainties about the global economy continued to push investors away from risk assets and into safe-haven assets like U.S. Treasuries and gold. The S&P 500 fell 1.2%, which was comparable to the declines in the Nasdaq Composite (-1.2%) and Russell 2000 (-1.2%). The Dow Jones Industrial Average lost 1.5%.
U.S. corporate and economic news was sparse on Monday, which helped attention focus on the government protests in Hong Kong, the political instability in Italy and Argentina, and the lack of improvement in U.S.-China trade relations. Economists from Goldman Sachs added to the sour mood, stating that they are not expecting a U.S.-China trade deal before the 2020 presidential election.
In other words, Monday featured plenty of negative-minded speculation, although it was understandable given the amount of negative developments around the world and the lack of good news. Perhaps the most startling development in the capital markets was the persistent decline, and compression, in U.S. Treasury yields.
This compression in yields not only hit investor sentiment but was also affected the S&P 500 financials sector (-1.9%), which led all 11 S&P 500 sectors in losses. Banks typically rely on healthy net interest margins to boost profit and facilitate lending activity. The other rate-sensitive sectors -- real estate (-0.3%) and utilities (-0.3%) -- outperformed but still finished lower.
An inversion of the 2-10 spread is widely viewed as a recession indicator, although an inversion does not necessarily predict one.
Markets in Argentina were reeling on Monday after President Mauricio Macri, who is known for being pro-business, lost a primary election on Sunday. Argentina's peso had weakened about 25% against the dollar in early trading amid investor concerns about the potential return to power of Argentina's Peronist movement under Alberto Fernandez and his running mate, former president Cristina Kirchner. Fernandez has pledged to undo many of Macri's market-friendly policies and the surprising primary results has been followed by sharp slides for many stocks linked to Argentina that trade in New York, including MercadoLibre (MELI), Banco Macro (BMA), Despegar.com (DESP), Grupo Financiero Galicia (GGAL), Loma Negra (LOMA), Pampa Energia (PAM), Telecom Argentina (TEO), YPF (YPF) and Arcos Dorados (ARCO).
Among the notable gainers was ROKU, after Needam analyst Laura Martin raised its price target to $150 saying Netflix “has the most to lose. Also higher was AMGN, which gained 6% after a United States District Court judge in New Jersey ruled on Friday in the company's favor in a patent fight with NVS. Shares of MU were on the rise in late trading on Monday as the company's CFO said that "demand has come back".
Meanwhile, CPB was in focus after Sky News reported that Valeo Foods Group is in advanced talks to acquire Campbell's Kettle Foods operations in the U.K. and Ireland. The deal, which could be reached in the coming days, is expected to be worth more than GBP50M, according to Sky. The news comes after Campbell Soup announced earlier this month that it signed an agreement to sell Arnott's and other international operations to KKR for $2.2B in cash.
Additionally, New York Attorney General Letitia James said via Twitter that Oregon has joined her state's lawsuit to block the merger of TMUS and S. James added in the tweet that the coalition involved in the suit includes 16 states. A New York AG spokesperson told Dealreporter last week that the office was in talks with a "handful" of other states that were considering whether to sign onto the lawsuit.
In Asia overnight, stocks were mostly higher, with the China CSI 300 rising 1.8%, while Japan’s Nikkei 225 added 0.4%. Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index HSI meanwhile lost 0.4%. European stocks were trading lower Monday, down 0.2%, as measured by the Stoxx Europe 600.

Currency

The U.S. dollar index was roughly flat on Monday and sterling and the euro saw a modest rise as the foreign exchange market fell into an August lull, a traditionally quiet trading period with many investors and traders on vacation.

Treasury

U.S. Treasuries spent the Monday session in a steady advance, pressuring the 30-yr yield to a fresh low for the year while the 10-yr yield approached its low from last week. The daylong rally was not fueled by a particular news catalyst but was rather a function of disappointment over the lack of an improvement in the official relationship between China and the United States.
The spread between the 2-yr and 10-yr yields narrowed to six basis points, as demand for longer-dated tenors continued to climb amid growth concerns. The 2-yr yield fell five basis points to 1.58%, and the 10-yr yield fell ten basis points to 1.64%. The U.S. Dollar Index declined 0.1% to 97.43.

Commodity

Oil prices rose on Monday despite worries about a global economic slowdown and the ongoing U.S.-China trade war, which has reduced demand for commodities such as crude.
Corn and soybean futures both fell sharply Monday after the U.S. Department of Agriculture's August production estimates projected larger-than-expected crops following an extremely wet spring that severely delayed corn planting, followed by dry conditions across much of the Midwest. Corn for December delivery CZ19 on the Chicago Board of trade fell 25 cents to $3.9275 a bushel, a decline of 6%. November soybeans SX19 dropped 11.5 cents, or 1.3%, to $8.8075 a bushel. The report estimated that U.S. farmers would produce 13.9 billion bushels of corn, down 4% from last year but larger than analysts had expected. Soybean production is forecast to fall 19% from last year to 3.68 billion bushels.

Crypto

YTD

  • Nas +18.5%
  • Spoos +15.0%
  • Rusell +10.8%
  • Old Man +11.0%

What's tomorrow?

  • Investors will receive the Consumer Price Index for July on Tuesday.
Summary scraped from the interweb. Took 0.11 seconds.
submitted by hibernating_brain to thewallstreet [link] [comments]

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL GOLD

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL GOLD

https://preview.redd.it/af3zxg5qxw941.png?width=605&format=png&auto=webp&s=2aec8a0772114a9402126c2b50e20cfdc53c9cc1
Introduction
Gold is one of the most seasoned and most stable assets individuals around the globe have been exchanging with for a considerable length of time. Each coin/token is supported by at any rate one gram of physical gold which gives a steady floor cost. At the point when we contrast the inventory of gold with the stockpile of Bitcoin, we notice that both are being mined, but in their own specific ways. Gold can be found in soil, waterways, and shakes everywhere throughout the world, paying little heed to outskirts. Additionally, freely of their area, Bitcoin diggers get an award for furnishing the system with figuring capacity to check and settle exchanges.
Digital Gold is a task based on blockchain dependent on the ethereum arrange. The task enable clients to purchase, sell and exchange inclusion physical gold through the ethereum based GOLD erc-20 token.People having referred to this are currently worried with respect to how these tokens can be safely put away, and how they can likewise protect it. This at that point will be the focal point of my distribution today. I will let you know and tell you the best way to safely store your digital gold tokens. Utilizing the Digital Gold erc-20 token, clients will have the option to purchase and sell inclusions in physical gold. This involves the crude procedures of purchasing, selling and putting away this physical gold would be completely destroyed. The coin is an Ethereum based ERC-20 token that equivalents to one gram of physical ninety-nine percent purity gold put away at secure vault. Digital Gold group, comprising of exceptionally qualified blockchain, fund, asset the board, IT and lawful experts, has contributed a very long time of difficult work to cause this dispatch to occur.
GOLD is a stablecoin planned for regular utilize the same amount of concerning esteem safeguarding purposes. At the point when you buy GOLD, you buy the relating measure of physical gold bullion put away at secure vault stockpiling. Here are a portion of the highlights that make the token remarkable:
  • Possess physical gold while staying private: There is no compelling reason to uncover your own data that is required to buy physical gold at bank or vault. Store an incentive in asset with a demonstrated reputation of thousands of years. Gold's uncommon long haul buying power solidness has made it the protected paradise asset of decision and fence against market unpredictability.
  • Make free exchanges: You can make as a lot of exchanges in GOLD as you like for nothing out of pocket. The main expense is a little percent charged day by day on your parity that goes towards putting away physical gold in vault.
  • No buy or deal limits: Digital Gold is a liquidity provider holding huge positions empowering buy and clearance of enormous measure of tokens at our site or accomplice trades.
  • Profoundly fast: Deal and buy exchanges are moment. Token holder can in a flash buy or sell tokens at our site or accomplice trades.
  • Repurchase is ensured: Digital Gold ensures that all tokens that you possess will be repurchased by us at gold spot cost.
  • Putting away of Gold: Digital Gold uses just genuine physical speculation grade 99.9% purity gold put away in a protected vault that is explicitly able to store precious metals. We never store gold utilizing gold trade exchanged assets or gold limits.
Carefully controlled outflow
Digital Gold will possibly give new tokens if there is relating measure of gold is accessible in vault. All gold put away is examined with reports made accessible to general society. GOLD Tokens is actually what you have to purchase gold and store it digitally with complete obscurity and assurance the security of your assets from high instability and loss of significant worth. You don't have to stress over the conversion scale of GOLD tokens since GOLD tokens are equivalent to genuine gold and the trade esteem is equivalent to you will get benefit by purchasing and sparing GOLD tokens insurance and protection will be the most need for the group. GOLD Ethereum-based ERC20 Tokens are a simple and moment approach to spare, purchase, sell, or move gold at a speculation level since this is a digital variant of gold value 1 TOKEN = 1 Unadulterated 99.99 Unadulterated GRAM Every single GOLD token upheld by physical gold for wellbeing are put away in your safe never to stress. Gold put away is examined continuously and can be confirmed on the web.
Every GOLD Token is given utilizing smart contracts Ethereum and the quantity of tokens available for use is consistently equivalent to the aggregate sum of gold bars put away in the vault. gold everywhere throughout the world is utilized to spare riches and make benefits picked up when costs rise again gold costs will in general be steady and make numerous individuals around the globe purchase and sell gold.
Digital Gold accomplishes this by making an ERC-20 protest gold token collateralized by real gold. Everybody realizes that GOLD is an old precious item that have been applied in different exercises particularly in exchanging and trade around the world.
https://preview.redd.it/st3bj6c2zw941.png?width=562&format=png&auto=webp&s=105dbb10d5e1185358dd3910bc51220a850446f7
Gold is costly which has made it an engaging venture and business product however because of confounded and pointless prerequisites associated with gaining and exchanging real gold, made a few people lose enthusiasm for gold business. In this manner, Digital Gold has made gaining real gold simpler through their gave gold upheld tokens. The gold stablecoin gives obscurity to their proprietors and it is pegged to real cost of gold in the worldwide market, whereby the liquidity of the tokens is ensured by means of the amassed BTC and ETH assets gained from selling the gold stablecoins through the official market place (https://gold.storage/market) and on other exchanges.
Conclusion
Conclusively, financial specialists and merchants are guaranteed of increment in estimation of their property through responsibility for gold stablecoins in light of the fact that it is collaterized by physical gold, whereby genuine gold which have a low or non unpredictability attributes will in general ascent due to it's irregularity. The vast majority will in general abstain from utilizing stablecoin pegged to national fiat since they aren't sure it is totally decentralized and unknown, thusly merchants and financial specialists can depend on the Digital Gold gave gold supported tokens since it is based on Ethereum blockchain, subsequently it ensures total decentralization, namelessness, straightforwardness, effectiveness and security in all business exchanges.
Kindly visit the below website for more in depth knowledge about the project
Website: https://gold.storage/
Whitepaper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
ANN Thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5161544
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.com/gold_erc20
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/golderc20
Bitcointalk username: bosunbossman
Bitcointalk profile link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=1197648;sa=summary
submitted by bboossmmaann to CryptoICONews [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Instability After We Are All Dead Bitcoin & Cryptocurrencies Course  Is it a good time to ... Elbit.io  New Bitcoin Cloud Mining Site 2020  0.00005 Satoshi Earn Daily Without Investment Is Bitcoin A Good Hedge Against Global Instability ... LIVE BITCOIN FLASH CRASH and EXTREME CRYPTOSPHERIC INSTABILITY

The term “Bitcoin Fear and Greed Index” is commonly used in trading which is a way to assess the sentiments of traders towards the traditional crypto market. Fear is when the price of the Bitcoin market falls down due to massive sell-off. Investors get worried and try to get rid of by selling, usually at reduced prices and this could be a golden chance for buyers. Greed can take Bitcoin ... The virtual currency market, as well as the ordinary financial markets, is currently experiencing strong volatility under the pressure of the current coronavirus pandemic. For cryptocurrencies, however, a price fluctuation is a normal and natural phenomenon. Thus, some analysts liken the current Forex market volatility to the virtual currency market. Bitcoin is having its best day since March 12, rising more than 15% today. The cryptocurrency is rising in price with indices like the S&P 500, but Bitcoin’s double digit move is far outpacing the stock market. In the short-term, analysts say Bitcoin’s price will likely stay correlated with these markets as traders navigate macro instability. If Bitcoin volatility decreases, the cost of converting into and out of Bitcoin will decrease as well. How do we calculate the volatility? It uses the standard deviation of the daily open price for the preceding 30-, 60-, 120- and 365-day windows. These are measures of historical volatility based on past Bitcoin and Litecoin prices. Bitcoin’s performance is also not impressive, at -31%, faring worse than S&P 500 index. Meanwhile, gold and USD are doing relatively well. Interestingly, the USD is the winner in the coronavirus pandemic period, even though the US has implemented unprecedented, unlimited QE to prevent a radical economic recession.

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Bitcoin Instability After We Are All Dead

BTC: A hedge against instability in Forex market Mahony explains that the Greece crisis and Gold fall has pushed more players in the Bitcoin market. The BTC space is now looking more appealing as ... LIVE BITCOIN FLASH CRASH and EXTREME CRYPTOSPHERIC INSTABILITY The News UNIT. Loading... Unsubscribe from The News UNIT? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 1.27K ... Is it a good time to buy Bitcoin again? A research from the prestigious Yale University developed a technique on past price action to predict the price of B... Time Index: 00:01 - Intro & Travel Schedule 02:30 - Equities (French Elections!!!) 07:00 - Gold 12:30 - Oil 14:30 - FX (EUR & EURGBP & CADUSD) 20:00 - Bitcoin Technicals (Bitcoin Index Talk) 32:00 ... http://bitcoinsmining.org/freebtc - Get Free Bitcoins Bitcoins --- the stateless currency managed by a network of math-problem-solving PCs --- has spiked in ...

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