How Can Bitcoin Be Lost Or Stolen When It's In An ...

Bob The Magic Custodian



Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses.
Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes.

First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure:

Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:

But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are!

"On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid".
"Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since."

"As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!"
"Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?"

"Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party."
"Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!"

"What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven."
"Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!"

"We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies.
And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often".

How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen?
Just one.

Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so?
If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security.

The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle.

And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet?

Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds.
So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever.

Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see.
It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation.
A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.

History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance.
Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.)
Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive.

Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today.
Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well.
Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do.

Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):



Thoughts?
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

🗣Recently there was a live broadcast on Instagram with CEO at SIMBA STORAGE Antony Katin. He answered questions from users and spoke about the company's plans.

Our team will share some points with you: 🔶Registration of Simba Storage in Switzerland shifts to November. 🔶We started testing our own storage hardware. We are planning diversification in 4 locations (Switzerland, Liechtenstein, the UAE, New Zealand). That is, having broken into 1 bunker, bitcoins cannot be stolen. You need to hack several bunkers at once located in different parts of the world. 🔒 🔶Customers will be able to buy SIMBA tokens directly from bank cards. Negotiations are underway to connect payment systems. You will be able to use your payment card of any country to pay for the purchase of Simba directly on the website. Simba will be transferred to the company's account. The scheme is as follows - your fiat goes to our partners (the company provider), the company transfers bitcoins to Simba Storage, the smart contract issues Simba tokens and transfer them to your Ethereum address. The fee is approximately 4-5%. ⠀ 🔹Our strategy and Roadmap have been revised. Now, first of all, we are going to receive a license in FMA, but not in FINMA. It will allow us to work both in Europe and all over the world. According to our plans, in a year or at the end of 2021, there will be an opportunity to get a license from the financial regulator FMA and to work legally. ⠀ 🔹Negotiations are being held with licensed European funds with insurance, which will be able to increase the amount of SIMBA (bitcoins) for our clients. ⠀ 🔹We are discussing with lawyers the creation of a trust fund for SIMBA clients with the possibility of storing bitcoins without having their own wallet addresses, so as not to fall under criminal liability in different countries all over the world.
submitted by simba_official to u/simba_official [link] [comments]

Bitcoin insurance

This person came up to the money center at my job and had a check from the bank. The reason was that his bitcoin was stolen from.his wallet and something happen and his bank gave insurance on it.
What i dont understand why a bank would give insurance on bitcoin if you happen to lose it or someone hacked you. Wouldn't the only insurance come from a regulated exchange and not the persons personal bank. The check was legitimate, but the story sounds like bs.
Don't care about the amount of money, but why would a bank offer insurance on this?
submitted by nathanielx4 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

I was scammed and need help!

My name is Gabriel Acosta, a small business owner seeking representation in a securities fraud case. I am a victim of online broker scam; a operation I was coerced into, and as a result of which I was defrauded by a company named Tridixoptions (Tridixoption.net), claiming to have a registered address at 1407 Moon Harbor ct, Saint Augustine, FL United States, representing itself as a “financial broker”.
The perpetrators approached me through the social media platform, Instagram, using profiles inquiring whether I was interested in making a small investment into their platform, Tridixoptions. I decided to give it a try with $300 USD. In my eyes, this was an opportunity and decided to incorporate a business to use as a personal investment structure and decided to use this "online broker" as a catalyst for the opportunity. Shortly after the initial deposit, they began charging me fees as the “investment value” increased on the platform. These fees included fees to increase wallet value, enable auto-trading and finally a withdrawal insurance fee, among other various "fees". The value listed on their "platform" consistently showed an increase in value; I went ahead and believed their listed returns and continued to deposit funds into the account. At the time of payout, I was shown to have a value of over 108,000 USD and had personally invested approximately 50,000 USD into their platform. Unfortunately, on May 31, 2019 after depositing the withdrawal insurance fee, I received communication from the platform informing me that if I had not received my payout by then that I will not receive one and to proceed with filing a lawsuit against them.
I am able to provide email documentation detailing what is described above, it is house and organized within the company OneDrive.
Upon further reflection, it is evident that this Merchant is operating the online platform under the address http://www.tridixoption.net/ and the deposit of funds were directed into a false and fictitious “trading account”. The cryptocurrency deposits I made into their account are as follows:
  1. Bitcoin (BTC) totally equal to 10,541.15 USD bought via Coinbase, LocalBitcoins and BitBase exchange (www.bitbase.es) platforms;
  2. Bitcoin (BTC) totally equal to 24,016.00 USD bought via Paxful exchange (www.paxful.com) – owned and operated by Paxful Inc., a company registered under the laws of the United States, having its registered address at 3422 Old Capitol Trail PMB # 989 Wilmington, DE 19808-6124;
  3. A wire funds totaling to 9,720.08 USD to another entity acting as Beneficiary, namely Coin Trader LLC, registered in the US with company number 1293008-93, based in 4621 SW KELLY AVE STE 200, Oregon, USA and holding an account with Keybank National Association. These funds were used to purchase additional virtual currency (BTC) and transferred into the e-wallet of the fictitious e-wallet.
The entirety of purchased BTC (virtual currency) were deposited into the following wallet addresses, as designated by the Merchant:
1EqldoPtl96ZDYF2uoATG5YV6Bj3uih4u9 (https://www.blockchain.com/btc/address/1EqLdoPtL96ZDYF2uoATG5YV6Bj3uih4u9?page=12)
3Qd7ghJ39CA3VrTc4DtATAyT3kVjvGcv6b (https://www.blockchain.com/btc/address/3Qd7ghJ39CA3VrTc4DtATAyT3kVjvGcv6b) AND 3QfSA27pAU68YRahSbbusCtEyKnNyNxp48 (https://www.blockchain.com/btc/address/3QfSA27pAU68YRahSbbusCtEyKnNyNxp48?page=1)
The aforementioned should have never been treated as owned by the Merchant. Neither the Merchant nor the beneficiary of payments demonstrated capacity to keep segregated accounts for such investment endeavors. It remains unclear how the Merchant passed through the on-boarding procedures of the cryptocurrency exchange, respectively whether the Merchant acted on his own or by an authorized representative in his relations with the cryptocurrency exchange. Following the principle that possible breaches of banking and financial laws, such as the allowance of payment processing in favor of unregulated legal entity, shall be observed and established by the competent authorities, I hereby report alleged financial fraud.
This situation has destroyed the potential of the company and my personal finances. The pain and suffering I have incurred due to these actions include: destruction of my personal credit, repossession of the company vehicle, eviction from my residence and subsequent homelessness and inability to provide health care of myself or my pet.
Herewith I kindly request:
I am searching for an attorney that can complete the following:
  1. File a lawsuit against the brokers that house the perpetrators e-wallet and where the virtual currency was transferred into. To elaborate: The prior twelve (12) months, I have been collaborating with a company based out of Europe that was tasked with informing all stakeholders and regulators of the issues I have been facing and attempt to make recovery of the funds (mychargeback.com). As of today, we have informed the authorities and the exchanges where the currencies were purchased (Paxful, LocalBitcoins, Bitbase, Coinbase) and have conducted an online trace of where the funds were transferred into using state-of-the-art cryptocurrency technology (Cyphertrace). There are two (2) exchanges that have processed the transactions and have violated domestic and international banking laws by not conducting proper due-diligence on both sides of the transactions: one located here in the United States (Paxful, Delaware) and the other located in Singapore (Luno). I have informed both entities of the illegal activities and at this moment, they are conducting internal investigations to protect their interests and contain liability. According to email documentation, they have traced the perpetrators and flagged their accounts to hopefully prevent another victim.
  2. Obtain the results of the subpoena and provide me additional representation in filing a lawsuit in an attempt to recover the stolen funds and provide justice for these illegal acts. This item may also involve filing a lawsuit against the cryptocurrency exchanges that failed to conduct proper investigations on both sides of the transaction to ascertain that the money was not going to fund terrorism, money-laundering, racketeering, trafficking or other illegal activities. These exchanges are now liable for violating both domestic and international law. They have failed to act in a manner consistent with being a "good banker”.
I have exhaustive documentation that is located in 3 separate links (https://www.dropbox.com/sh/dyp29kbutj03lhg/AABuQkRZJB2XgpHbmrtWdE_1a?dl=0 [1], https://www.dropbox.com/sh/rmimegg0vibp85o/AADQKR6AdEHuDPOw4pycij1Va?dl=0 [2], https://www.dropbox.com/sh/1pdsa1rua0inzd0/AAArv2BQ_Zr7Z7-vhhzQ2wNDa?dl=0 [3]) and organized in a manner to support my case. I seek representation to assist me in "digging myself out of the hole that I have been thrown into". I am hoping that someone out there can assist me in removing the "poison" from the "bite" that i received from these illegal actions and help me find justice, not only for myself but for the entire system which could cause societal crash and us into an new age of darkness and rampant avarice.
Thank you for your time and consideration,
Gabriel Acosta
submitted by My_Fathers_Keeper777 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Value of Adoption

I recently read something about how cryptocurrencies claim to be decentralized, but while that might technically be true of the network for most cryptos, something like 85% of cryptos have over 90% of the supply of coins concentrated in the top 100 wallets (My numbers might be a bit off I'm sorry I wanted to link the article but couldnt find it again).
This got me thinking... because adoption is absolutely critical for all of these cryptos. If nobody is using it the coin is worthless, and in many cases a certain threshold of adoption will have to be reached in order for the coin to continue functioning as intended. For example, digibyte has smaller fees than bitcoin, but that means they will need more transactions and more throughput in order to continue to sustain the miners.
Now, I'm thinking these top 100 addresses of a coin are usually the market-making entities, who influence the price of a coin, moving it between different levels of accumulation. Bots move the price within a certain zone, and when there are no buyers left at that price, they make a move up or down, manipulate and liquidate longs and shorts, try to shake out weak hands, and eventually real people start reacting to the price action.
I want to put the idea out there that these large whales need real adoption and use just as much as we need hard money and an innovative internet of value. And I wonder if there is a way for us to test the value of adoption. For instance... if 100,000 people each put in a limit order for 500 dollars worth of a coin, that's 50 million dollars. But what if they all put in that order at 20% below the market value? Would the market-makers move the price down to scoop up that 50 million dollars? Would they try to move it up to try and get them to change their position? I imagine one of the most important metrics for a whale is at what levels large amounts of buyers and sellers are at, and I guess I'm just curious if it's possible for a large enough group of poor people to pool enough money together at a certain price range in order to make some whales see enough value at that level to move the price to it.
The reason I think about this is because a lot of people are seeing this reset of the financial system as a transfer of wealth, and a rare opportunity at a chance to turn a small amount of capital into a small fortune, but if all of the printed money just goes to the rich and the rich people buy all the crypto first, then that means poor people are just buying crypto from the rich.. and that makes me wonder if it's actually people buying into crypto whose wealth is being stolen?? Obviously I'm one of the people buying in.. but I still wonder if there is some group who engineered all this fear about a monetary collapse just so they could sell you insurance for it..
submitted by Knowmadic_Scholar to digitalmoney [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Broker Understand the Benefits of CryptoCurrency Trading

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, which can be spent, saved, or invested, and it can be stolen too. Trading with Bitcoins was considered to be risky, but the current trends show that it has become a big hit the binary options sector. This decentralized currency is not regulated by any Government, or by any central authority.
What determines the price of Bitcoins?
Bitcoin's price is determined according to the supply and demand ratio. Price increases when the demand increases, the rates plummet downwards when the demand falls. Bitcoins in circulation are limited, and new ones are created at a very slow rate. Since it does not have enough cash reserve to move the market price, its price can be extremely volatile.
Bitcoin trading is popular because of -
Binary options Bitcoin trading platform
bitcoin binary options are getting familiar with popularity of these Bitcoins, and its constant fluctuating values. Therefore they are using this opportunity to offer traders with the latest volatile crypto-currency as an additional payment method. Bitcoin brokers providing crypto-currency as trading option include -
Bitcoin brokers provide a simple trading online platform. All you have to do is visit their website, enter your details, and create an account. You can start with demo account to understand the market action.
The trading screen is simple.
Is Bitcoin trading secure?
Bitcoin network is possibly the world's vast spread computing project. The most common weakness here is the user errors. Bitcoin wallet files can get lost, stolen, or deleted accidentally just like any other files in the digital form.
However, users can use sound security strategies to protect their cash. Alternatively, you could choose the service providers who offer high-level security, as well as insurance against loss or theft.
We provide latest information on Bitcoin brokers and online trading platforms on our website. Please visit our website to check out the broker reviews in order to make the right choices.
submitted by amirkhoso to u/amirkhoso [link] [comments]

The events of a SIM swap attack (and defense tips)

Posted this on Coinbase and someone recommend it also be posted here. The information below on an attempted SIM swap attack was pieced together through a combination of login and security logs, recovering emails initiated by the attacker that were deleted and then deleted again from the trash folder, and learning from AT&T’s fraud representatives. The majority if this is factual, and we do our best to note where we are speculating or providing a circumstantial suspicion. TLDRs at the bottom.
The full story:
We were going about our business and received a text from AT&T that says “…Calls & texts will go to your new phone/SIM card. Call 866-563-4705 if you did not request.” We did not request this, and were suspicious that the text itself could be a phishing scam since we searched the phone number and it wasn’t overtly associated with AT&T. Thus, we tried calling AT&T’s main line at 611 but all we hear is beep beep beep. The phone number is already gone. We use another phone to call AT&T and at the same time start working on our already compromised email.
While we didn’t see everything real time, this is what the recovered emails show. In less than 2 minutes after receiving the text from AT&T, there is already an email indicating that the stolen phone number was used to sign into our email account associated with Coinbase. 2 minutes after that, there is an email from Coinbase saying:
"We have received your request for password reset from an unverified device. As a security precaution, an e-mail with a reset link will be sent to you in 24 hours. Alternatively, if you would like your password reset to be processed immediately, please submit a request using a verified device.
This 24 hour review period is designed to protect your Coinbase account."
This is where Coinbase got it right to have a 24 hour review period (actually a recovery period) before allowing the password to be reset. However, the attackers knew this and planned to steal the second email from Coinbase by setting email rules to forward all emails to a burner address and also have any emails containing “coinbase” re-routed so they don’t appear in the Inbox. 5 minutes later, they request a password reset from Gemini and the password was reset to the attacker’s password within a minute after that. The next minute they target and reset DropBox’s password followed immediately with Binance. Less than 2 minutes later, an email from Binance indicates that the password has been reset and another email arrives a minute later indicating a new device has been authorized.
It’s at this point that we begin locking the attacker out by (1) removing the phone number as 2FA (2) changing the email password, (3) and three forcing a logout of all sessions from the email. There was a bit of back and forth where they still had an active login and re-added the stolen phone number as 2FA.
They added only one more password reset to a gaming account that was not deleted. I can only suspect that was a decoy to make it look like the attack was directed at gaming rather than finances.
The Gemini and Binance accounts were empty and effectively abandoned, with no balances and inactive bank accounts (if any), and no transactions in 1-3 years. DropBox had no meaningful files (they probably look for private keys and authenticator backups) and the phone number they stole from us was suspended, so as far as the attacker is concerned, there is no meat on this bone to attack again… unless they had inside information.
This is where I suspect someone internal at Coinbase receiving wire deposits has been compromised in tipping off ripe accounts – accounts with new and somewhat large balances. We had completed a full withdrawal of funds from Coinbase earlier in the year, and had a balance of less than $20 heading into May. Deposits to Coinbase staggered in to get above six figures through mid-May then stopped. The attack occurred 7 days after the last large wire deposit was made to Coinbase.
From the perspective of an attacker that had no inside information, we were a dead end with abandoned Gemini and Binance accounts with zero balances and stale transactions, no DropBox information, and the suspended phone number access. Our Coinbase deposits were known to no one except us, Coinbase, and our bank. We were also able to stop the hacker’s email forwarding before Coinbase’s 24 hour period to send the password reset, so this one didn’t work out for the attackers and it would make sense for them to move on to the next rather than put efforts into a second attack only for Coinbase - for what would appear to be a zero-balance Coinbase account based on the other stale accounts.
Then…23 hours and 42 minutes after the first attack, another message from AT&T “…Calls & texts will go to your new phone/SIM card. Call 866-563-4705 if you did not request.” Here we go again. We had been confident in AT&T’s assurances that our account had been locked and would not be SIM swapped again, so we unwisely added the phone number back to our email account as a backup (it’s now removed permanently and we use burner emails for account recovery like we should have all along).
Upon seeing that our phone number had been stolen again I knew they were after the Coinbase reset email that was delayed by 24 hours from Coinbase as part of their security. We did 4 things within 2 minutes of that text: (1) removed the phone number again from the email account – this time for good, (2) market sell all Bitcoin on Coinbase, (3) withdraw from Coinbase, (4) have AT&T suspend service on the phone line.
In speaking with AT&T, they were floored that our SIM would be transferred again in light of all the notes about fraud on the account and the PIN being changed to random digits that had never been used by us before. Based on the response of disbelief from AT&T on the second port, I suspect that this attack also involved a compromised AT&T employee that worked with the attacker to provide timely access to the Coinbase password reset email. Apparently, this has been going on for years: https://www.flashpoint-intel.com/blog/sim-swap-fraud-account-takeove
with phone carrier employees swapping SIMs for $80s a swap.
Remember that most of this was hidden in real time, and was only known because we were able to recover emails deleted from Trash by the attacker.
Since we require any withdrawals to use Google Authenticator on Coinbase, our funds may have been secure nonetheless. However, under the circumstances with attackers that were apparently working with insiders to take our phone number twice in attempts to steal Bitcoin, and it being unknown if they had additional tools related to our Google Authenticator, we decided it was safer on the sidelines. The coins were held on the exchange for a quick exit depending on whether Bitcoin was going to break up or down from $10,000. A hardware wallet is always safest, but we were looking to time the market and not have transaction delays.
For some some security recommendations:
AT&T: If you are going to send a text saying that calls and texts are moving to a new number, provide a 10 minute window for the phone number to reply with a “NO” or “STOP” to prevent the move. This can escalate the SIM dispute to more trusted employees to determine who actually owns the line. Don’t let entry level employees swap SIMs.
Coinbase: Do not default to phone numbers as 2FA. Also, if someone logs in successfully with the password before the 24 hours are up, the password is known and there is no need to send the password reset email again for attacker to have forwarded to them. At least have an option to stop the password reset email from being sent. We did not tag our account at Coinbase with fraud because of the stories of frozen funds once an account is tagged. I’m not sure what the solution is there, but that is another problem.
Being a trader, it would be nice to think of Coinbase as any other type of security brokerage where your assets are yours (someone can’t steal your phone number and transfer your stocks to their account). We fell into that mindset of security, yet this experience has reminded us of the uniqueness of cryptocurrency and the lack of custodial assurance and insurance from exchanges because of the possession-is-everything properties of cryptocurrency.
As many have said before, 2FA with a phone number quickly becomes 1-factor authentication as soon as that phone number is associated with password recovery on your email or other accounts. Our overall recommendation is to avoid having a phone number associated with any recovery options across all your accounts.
TLDR on the process:
Scammers will steal your phone number (in our case twice in 24 hours) and use your phone number to access your email and accounts. They will use your email to reset passwords at financial accounts and file hosting such as DropBox. They will then use that combination to transfer any assets they can access from your accounts to theirs. They will do their best to hide this from you by
(1) not resetting your email password so as to raise suspicion,
(2) immediately delete any password reset emails you may receive from financial accounts to hide them from you,
(3) attempt to forward all emails sent to your address to a burner email, and
(4) set email rules to forward emails containing “coinbase” to an email folder other than your Inbox so that you don’t see the transactions and password reset emails that arrive to your inbox.
TLDR on defense tips: If your phone stops working or you receive a text of your number being ported do the following as soon as possible:
(1) log into your email account(s) associated with your financial accounts and remove your phone number as 2FA immediately
(2) change your email password,
(3) force a logout of all sessions from your email (at this point you have locked them out), then
(4) check your mail forwarding settings for forwards to burner addresses,
(5) check your mail rules for rerouting of emails from accounts such as Coinbase, and
(6) call your carrier to have them suspend service on your lost phone number and ask them to reinstate your SIM or get a new SIM. This will require a second phone because your personal phone number has been stolen.
We hope this helps some others be safe out there in protecting their coins. The more we know, the more we can protect ourselves. Wishing you all the best!
submitted by etheregg to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

ATS Wallet is the Technological Unicorn for this Decade

Unicorns in technology are companies that are extremely unique and pave the new way that technology is moving in. In the cryptocurrency space, Bitcoin has shown to be a Unicorn asset. However, as we move more into the technology space of cryptocurrency we can see that ATS wallet is adopting new security and functionality integrations that are paving the way companies in the space act.
As more people start to use cryptocurrencies, we need better ways to not only consume them but to purchase them and make cryptocurrency easily accessible. Before ATS wallet cryptocurrency users were forced to use dodgy exchange sites and hard to use graphical interphases. However, with ATS users are easily able to transact with cryptocurrencies from their phone with easy user interphases. Someone with little to no knowledge of cryptocurrencies can quickly start interacting with them as the wallet holds multiple functionalities. To be a unicorn ATS wallet would need to have multiple integrations that make cryptocurrency life simple and easy to interact with. Let’s go over the different services that ATS has in one transparent location. Wallet Cryptocurrency wallets have been around since the start of Bitcoin, however ATS conveniently allows users to interact with crypto in a completely new way. ATS has FDIC insurance so that if a user has crypto stolen, there is insurance to help offset the losses. This allows mainstream users to download the wallet as they won’t need to worry about crypto being stolen.
Exchange Not only can you store multiple cryptocurrencies, but you can now exchange them all in one transparent place. You can use ATS to hold your cryptocurrency, and then actively trade it with a click of a button. Anyone who owns cryptocurrency can now become a trader without an expert knowledge of maketaker fees.
Masternode Staking your cryptocurrency can be scary on your own due to the irreversible nature of the blockchain. However, ATS wallet has made it easy to interact with your cryptocurrency using an inhouse masternode. You can now earn 90% interest on your DASH coins, and soon more crypto will be added to the list. Staking and running a masternode has never been easier with the ATS wallet.
Before the wallet, only experts in the cryptocurrency field could stake their assets. However, ATS has completely changed the ball game and are allowing anyone to participate in the ecosystem.
submitted by Generalship7 to btc [link] [comments]

The events of a SIM swap attack directed at Coinbase (and defense tips)

The information below on an attempted SIM swap attack was pieced together through a combination of login and security logs, recovering emails initiated by the attacker that were deleted and then deleted again from the trash folder, and learning from AT&T’s fraud representatives. The majority if this is factual, and we do our best to note where we are speculating or providing a circumstantial suspicion. TLDRs at the bottom.
The full story:
We were going about our business and received a text from AT&T that says “…Calls & texts will go to your new phone/SIM card. Call 866-563-4705 if you did not request.” We did not request this, and were suspicious that the text itself could be a phishing scam since we searched the phone number and it wasn’t overtly associated with AT&T. Thus, we tried calling AT&T’s main line at 611 but all we hear is beep beep beep. The phone number is already gone. We use another phone to call AT&T and at the same time start working on our already compromised email.
While we didn’t see everything real time, this is what the recovered emails show. In less than 2 minutes after receiving the text from AT&T, there is already an email indicating that the stolen phone number was used to sign into our email account associated with Coinbase. 2 minutes after that, there is an email from Coinbase saying:
"We have received your request for password reset from an unverified device. As a security precaution, an e-mail with a reset link will be sent to you in 24 hours. Alternatively, if you would like your password reset to be processed immediately, please submit a request using a verified device.
This 24 hour review period is designed to protect your Coinbase account."
This is where Coinbase got it right to have a 24 hour review period (actually a recovery period) before allowing the password to be reset. However, the attackers knew this and planned to steal the second email from Coinbase by setting email rules to forward all emails to a burner address and also have any emails containing “coinbase” re-routed so they don’t appear in the Inbox. 5 minutes later, they request a password reset from Gemini and the password was reset to the attacker’s password within a minute after that. The next minute they target and reset DropBox’s password followed immediately with Binance. Less than 2 minutes later, an email from Binance indicates that the password has been reset and another email arrives a minute later indicating a new device has been authorized.
It’s at this point that we begin locking the attacker out by (1) removing the phone number as 2FA (2) changing the email password, (3) and three forcing a logout of all sessions from the email. There was a bit of back and forth where they still had an active login and re-added the stolen phone number as 2FA.
They added only one more password reset to a gaming account that was not deleted. I can only suspect that was a decoy to make it look like the attack was directed at gaming rather than finances.
The Gemini and Binance accounts were empty and effectively abandoned, with no balances and inactive bank accounts (if any), and no transactions in 1-3 years. DropBox had no meaningful files (they probably look for private keys and authenticator backups) and the phone number they stole from us was suspended, so as far as the attacker is concerned, there is no meat on this bone to attack again… unless they had inside information.
This is where I suspect someone internal at Coinbase receiving wire deposits has been compromised in tipping off ripe accounts – accounts with new and somewhat large balances. We had completed a full withdrawal of funds from Coinbase earlier in the year, and had a balance of less than $20 heading into May. Deposits to Coinbase staggered in to get above six figures through mid-May then stopped. The attack occurred 7 days after the last large wire deposit was made to Coinbase.
From the perspective of an attacker that had no inside information, we were a dead end with abandoned Gemini and Binance accounts with zero balances and stale transactions, no DropBox information, and the suspended phone number access. Our Coinbase deposits were known to no one except us, Coinbase, and our bank. We were also able to stop the hacker’s email forwarding before Coinbase’s 24 hour period to send the password reset, so this one didn’t work out for the attackers and it would make sense for them to move on to the next rather than put efforts into a second attack only for Coinbase - for what would appear to be a zero-balance Coinbase account based on the other stale accounts.
Then…23 hours and 42 minutes after the first attack, another message from AT&T “…Calls & texts will go to your new phone/SIM card. Call 866-563-4705 if you did not request.” Here we go again. We had been confident in AT&T’s assurances that our account had been locked and would not be SIM swapped again, so we unwisely added the phone number back to our email account as a backup (it’s now removed permanently and we use burner emails for account recovery like we should have all along).
Upon seeing that our phone number had been stolen again I knew they were after the Coinbase reset email that was delayed by 24 hours from Coinbase as part of their security. We did 4 things within 2 minutes of that text: (1) removed the phone number again from the email account – this time for good, (2) market sell all Bitcoin on Coinbase, (3) withdraw from Coinbase, (4) have AT&T suspend service on the phone line.
In speaking with AT&T, they were floored that our SIM would be transferred again in light of all the notes about fraud on the account and the PIN being changed to random digits that had never been used by us before. Based on the response of disbelief from AT&T on the second port, I suspect that this attack also involved a compromised AT&T employee that worked with the attacker to provide timely access to the Coinbase password reset email. Apparently, this has been going on for years: https://www.flashpoint-intel.com/blog/sim-swap-fraud-account-takeove with phone carrier employees swapping SIMs for $80s a swap.
Remember that most of this was hidden in real time, and was only known because we were able to recover emails deleted from Trash by the attacker.
Since we require any withdrawals to use Google Authenticator on Coinbase, our funds may have been secure nonetheless. However, under the circumstances with attackers that were apparently working with insiders to take our phone number twice in attempts to steal Bitcoin, and it being unknown if they had additional tools related to our Google Authenticator, we decided it was safer on the sidelines. The coins were held on the exchange for a quick exit depending on whether Bitcoin was going to break up or down from $10,000. A hardware wallet is always safest, but we were looking to time the market and not have transaction delays.
For some some security recommendations:
AT&T: If you are going to send a text saying that calls and texts are moving to a new number, provide a 10 minute window for the phone number to reply with a “NO” or “STOP” to prevent the move. This can escalate the SIM dispute to more trusted employees to determine who actually owns the line. Don’t let entry level employees swap SIMs.
Coinbase: Do not default to phone numbers as 2FA. Also, if someone logs in successfully with the password before the 24 hours are up, the password is known and there is no need to send the password reset email again for attacker to have forwarded to them. At least have an option to stop the password reset email from being sent. We did not tag our account at Coinbase with fraud because of the stories of frozen funds once an account is tagged. I’m not sure what the solution is there, but that is another problem.
Being a trader, it would be nice to think of Coinbase as any other type of security brokerage where your assets are yours (someone can’t steal your phone number and transfer your stocks to their account). We fell into that mindset of security, yet this experience has reminded us of the uniqueness of cryptocurrency and the lack of custodial assurance and insurance from exchanges because of the possession-is-everything properties of cryptocurrency.
As many have said before, 2FA with a phone number quickly becomes 1-factor authentication as soon as that phone number is associated with password recovery on your email or other accounts. Our overall recommendation is to avoid having a phone number associated with any recovery options across all your accounts.
TLDR on the process:
Scammers will steal your phone number (in our case twice in 24 hours) and use your phone number to access your email and accounts. They will use your email to reset passwords at financial accounts and file hosting such as DropBox. They will then use that combination to transfer any assets they can access from your accounts to theirs. They will do their best to hide this from you by
(1) not resetting your email password so as to raise suspicion,
(2) immediately delete any password reset emails you may receive from financial accounts to hide them from you,
(3) attempt to forward all emails sent to your address to a burner email, and
(4) set email rules to forward emails containing “coinbase” to an email folder other than your Inbox so that you don’t see the transactions and password reset emails that arrive to your inbox.
TLDR on defense tips: If your phone stops working or you receive a text of your number being ported do the following as soon as possible:
(1) log into your email account(s) associated with your financial accounts and remove your phone number as 2FA immediately
(2) change your email password,
(3) force a logout of all sessions from your email (at this point you have locked them out), then
(4) check your mail forwarding settings for forwards to burner addresses,
(5) check your mail rules for rerouting of emails from accounts such as Coinbase, and
(6) call your carrier to have them suspend service on your lost phone number and ask them to reinstate your SIM or get a new SIM. This will require a second phone because your personal phone number has been stolen.
We hope this helps some others be safe out there in protecting their coins. The more we know, the more we can protect ourselves. Wishing you all the best!
submitted by etheregg to CoinBase [link] [comments]

How To End The Cryptocurrency Exchange "Wild West" Without Crippling Innovation


In case you haven't noticed the consultation paper, staff notice, and report on Quadriga, regulators are now clamping down on Canadian cryptocurrency exchanges. The OSC and other regulatory bodies are still interested in industry feedback. They have not put forward any official regulation yet. Below are some ideas/insights and a proposed framework.



Many of you have limited time to read the full proposal, so here are the highlights:

Offline Multi-Signature

Effective standards to prevent both internal and external theft. Exchange operators are trained and certified, and have a legal responsibility to users.

Regular Transparent Audits

Provides visibility to Canadians that their funds are fully backed on the exchange, while protecting privacy and sensitive platform information.

Insurance Requirements

Establishment of basic insurance standards/strategy, to expand over time. Removing risk to exchange users of any hot wallet theft.


Background and Justifications


Cold Storage Custody/Management
After reviewing close to 100 cases, all thefts tend to break down into more or less the same set of problems:
• Funds stored online or in a smart contract,
• Access controlled by one person or one system,
• 51% attacks (rare),
• Funds sent to the wrong address (also rare), or
• Some combination of the above.
For the first two cases, practical solutions exist and are widely implemented on exchanges already. Offline multi-signature solutions are already industry standard. No cases studied found an external theft or exit scam involving an offline multi-signature wallet implementation. Security can be further improved through minimum numbers of signatories, background checks, providing autonomy and legal protections to each signatory, establishing best practices, and a training/certification program.
The last two transaction risks occur more rarely, and have never resulted in a loss affecting the actual users of the exchange. In all cases to date where operators made the mistake, they've been fully covered by the exchange platforms.
• 51% attacks generally only occur on blockchains with less security. The most prominent cases have been Bitcoin Gold and Ethereum Classic. The simple solution is to enforce deposit limits and block delays such that a 51% attack is not cost-effective.
• The risk of transactions to incorrect addresses can be eliminated by a simple test transaction policy on large transactions. By sending a small amount of funds prior to any large withdrawals/transfers as a standard practice, the accuracy of the wallet address can be validated.
The proposal covers all loss cases and goes beyond, while avoiding significant additional costs, risks, and limitations which may be associated with other frameworks like SOC II.

On The Subject of Third Party Custodians
Many Canadian platforms are currently experimenting with third party custody. From the standpoint of the exchange operator, they can liberate themselves from some responsibility of custody, passing that off to someone else. For regulators, it puts crypto in similar categorization to oil, gold, and other commodities, with some common standards. Platform users would likely feel greater confidence if the custodian was a brand they recognized. If the custodian was knowledgeable and had a decent team that employed multi-sig, they could keep assets safe from internal theft. With the right protections in place, this could be a great solution for many exchanges, particularly those that lack the relevant experience or human resources for their own custody systems.
However, this system is vulnerable to anyone able to impersonate the exchange operators. You may have a situation where different employees who don't know each other that well are interacting between different companies (both the custodian and all their customers which presumably isn't just one exchange). A case study of what can go wrong in this type of environment might be Bitpay, where the CEO was tricked out of 5000 bitcoins over 3 separate payments by a series of emails sent legitimately from a breached computer of another company CEO. It's also still vulnerable to the platform being compromised, as in the really large $70M Bitfinex hack, where the third party Bitgo held one key in a multi-sig wallet. The hacker simply authorized the withdrawal using the same credentials as Bitfinex (requesting Bitgo to sign multiple withdrawal transactions). This succeeded even with the use of multi-sig and two heavily security-focused companies, due to the lack of human oversight (basically, hot wallet). Of course, you can learn from these cases and improve the security, but so can hackers improve their deception and at the end of the day, both of these would have been stopped by the much simpler solution of a qualified team who knew each other and employed multi-sig with properly protected keys. It's pretty hard to beat a human being who knows the business and the typical customer behaviour (or even knows their customers personally) at spotting fraud, and the proposed multi-sig means any hacker has to get through the scrutiny of 3 (or more) separate people, all of whom would have proper training including historical case studies.
There are strong arguments both for and against using use of third party custodians. The proposal sets mandatory minimum custody standards would apply regardless if the cold wallet signatories are exchange operators, independent custodians, or a mix of both.

On The Subject Of Insurance
ShakePay has taken the first steps into this new realm (congratulations). There is no question that crypto users could be better protected by the right insurance policies, and it certainly feels better to transact with insured platforms. The steps required to obtain insurance generally place attention in valuable security areas, and in this case included a review from CipherTrace. One of the key solutions in traditional finance comes from insurance from entities such as the CDIC.
However, historically, there wasn't found any actual insurance payout to any cryptocurrency exchange, and there are notable cases where insurance has not paid. With Bitpay, for example, the insurance agent refused because the issue happened to the third party CEO's computer instead of anything to do with Bitpay itself. With the Youbit exchange in South Korea, their insurance claim was denied, and the exchange ultimately ended up instead going bankrupt with all user's funds lost. To quote Matt Johnson in the original Lloyd's article: “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
ShakePay's insurance was only reported to cover their cold storage, and “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held”. Physical theft has never, in the history of cryptocurrency exchange cases reviewed, been reported as the cause of loss. From the limited information of the article, ShakePay made it clear their funds are in the hands of a single US custodian, and at least part of their security strategy is to "decline[] to confirm the custodian’s name on the record". While this prevents scrutiny of the custodian, it's pretty silly to speculate that a reasonably competent hacking group couldn't determine who the custodian is. A far more common infiltration strategy historically would be social engineering, which has succeeded repeatedly. A hacker could trick their way into ShakePay's systems and request a fraudulent withdrawal, impersonate ShakePay and request the custodian to move funds, or socially engineer their way into the custodian to initiate the withdrawal of multiple accounts (a payout much larger than ShakePay) exploiting the standard procedures (for example, fraudulently initiating or override the wallet addresses of a real transfer). In each case, nothing was physically stolen and the loss is therefore not covered by insurance.
In order for any insurance to be effective, clear policies have to be established about what needs to be covered. Anything short of that gives Canadians false confidence that they are protected when they aren't in any meaningful way. At this time, the third party insurance market does not appear to provide adequate options or coverage, and effort is necessary to standardize custody standards, which is a likely first step in ultimately setting up an insurance framework.
A better solution compared to third party insurance providers might be for Canadian exchange operators to create their own collective insurance fund, or a specific federal organization similar to the CDIC. Such an organization would have a greater interest or obligation in paying out actual cases, and that would be it's purpose rather than maximizing it's own profit. This would be similar to the SAFU which Binance has launched, except it would cover multiple exchanges. There is little question whether the SAFU would pay out given a breach of Binance, and a similar argument could be made for a insurance fund managed by a collective of exchange operators or a government organization. While a third party insurance provider has the strong market incentive to provide the absolute minimum coverage and no market incentive to payout, an entity managed by exchange operators would have incentive to protect the reputation of exchange operators/the industry, and the government should have the interest of protecting Canadians.

On The Subject of Fractional Reserve
There is a long history of fractional reserve failures, from the first banks in ancient times, through the great depression (where hundreds of fractional reserve banks failed), right through to the 2008 banking collapse referenced in the first bitcoin block. The fractional reserve system allows banks to multiply the money supply far beyond the actual cash (or other assets) in existence, backed only by a system of debt obligations of others. Safely supporting a fractional reserve system is a topic of far greater complexity than can be addressed by a simple policy, and when it comes to cryptocurrency, there is presently no entity reasonably able to bail anyone out in the event of failure. Therefore, this framework is addressed around entities that aim to maintain 100% backing of funds.
There may be some firms that desire but have failed to maintain 100% backing. In this case, there are multiple solutions, including outside investment, merging with other exchanges, or enforcing a gradual restoration plan. All of these solutions are typically far better than shutting down the exchange, and there are multiple cases where they've been used successfully in the past.

Proof of Reserves/Transparency/Accountability
Canadians need to have visibility into the backing on an ongoing basis.
The best solution for crypto-assets is a Proof of Reserve. Such ideas go back all the way to 2013, before even Mt. Gox. However, no Canadian exchange has yet implemented such a system, and only a few international exchanges (CoinFloor in the UK being an example) have. Many firms like Kraken, BitBuy, and now ShakePay use the Proof of Reserve term to refer to lesser proofs which do not actually cryptographically prove the full backing of all user assets on the blockchain. In order for a Proof of Reserve to be effective, it must actually be a complete proof, and it needs to be understood by the public that is expected to use it. Many firms have expressed reservations about the level of transparency required in a complete Proof of Reserve (for example Kraken here). While a complete Proof of Reserves should be encouraged, and there are some solutions in the works (ie TxQuick), this is unlikely to be suitable universally for all exchange operators and users.
Given the limitations, and that firms also manage fiat assets, a more traditional audit process makes more sense. Some Canadian exchanges (CoinSquare, CoinBerry) have already subjected themselves to annual audits. However, these results are not presently shared publicly, and there is no guarantee over the process including all user assets or the integrity and independence of the auditor. The auditor has been typically not known, and in some cases, the identity of the auditor is protected by a NDA. Only in one case (BitBuy) was an actual report generated and publicly shared. There has been no attempt made to validate that user accounts provided during these audits have been complete or accurate. A fraudulent fractional exchange, or one which had suffered a breach they were unwilling to publicly accept (see CoinBene), could easily maintain a second set of books for auditors or simply exclude key accounts to pass an individual audit.
The proposed solution would see a reporting standard which includes at a minimum - percentage of backing for each asset relative to account balances and the nature of how those assets are stored, with ownership proven by the auditor. The auditor would also publicly provide a "hash list", which they independently generate from the accounts provided by the exchange. Every exchange user can then check their information against this public "hash list". A hash is a one-way form of encryption, which fully protects the private information, yet allows anyone who knows that information already to validate that it was included. Less experienced users can take advantage of public tools to calculate the hash from their information (provided by the exchange), and thus have certainty that the auditor received their full balance information. Easy instructions can be provided.
Auditors should be impartial, their identities and process public, and they should be rotated so that the same auditor is never used twice in a row. Balancing the cost of auditing against the needs for regular updates, a 6 month cycle likely makes the most sense.

Hot Wallet Management
The best solution for hot wallets is not to use them. CoinBerry reportedly uses multi-sig on all withdrawals, and Bitmex is an international example known for their structure devoid of hot wallets.
However, many platforms and customers desire fast withdrawal processes, and human validation has a cost of time and delay in this process.
A model of self-insurance or separate funds for hot wallets may be used in these cases. Under this model, a platform still has 100% of their client balance in cold storage and holds additional funds in hot wallets for quick withdrawal. Thus, the risk of those hot wallets is 100% on exchange operators and not affecting the exchange users. Since most platforms typically only have 1%-5% in hot wallets at any given time, it shouldn't be unreasonable to build/maintain these additional reserves over time using exchange fees or additional investment. Larger withdrawals would still be handled at regular intervals from the cold storage.
Hot wallet risks have historically posed a large risk and there is no established standard to guarantee secure hot wallets. When the government of South Korea dispatched security inspections to multiple exchanges, the results were still that 3 of them got hacked after the inspections. If standards develop such that an organization in the market is willing to insure the hot wallets, this could provide an acceptable alternative. Another option may be for multiple exchange operators to pool funds aside for a hot wallet insurance fund. Comprehensive coverage standards must be established and maintained for all hot wallet balances to make sure Canadians are adequately protected.

Current Draft Proposal

(1) Proper multi-signature cold wallet storage.
(a) Each private key is the personal and legal responsibility of one person - the “signatory”. Signatories have special rights and responsibilities to protect user assets. Signatories are trained and certified through a course covering (1) past hacking and fraud cases, (2) proper and secure key generation, and (3) proper safekeeping of private keys. All private keys must be generated and stored 100% offline by the signatory. If even one private keys is ever breached or suspected to be breached, the wallet must be regenerated and all funds relocated to a new wallet.
(b) All signatories must be separate background-checked individuals free of past criminal conviction. Canadians should have a right to know who holds their funds. All signing of transactions must take place with all signatories on Canadian soil or on the soil of a country with a solid legal system which agrees to uphold and support these rules (from an established white-list of countries which expands over time).
(c) 3-5 independent signatures are required for any withdrawal. There must be 1-3 spare signatories, and a maximum of 7 total signatories. The following are all valid combinations: 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.
(d) A security audit should be conducted to validate the cold wallet is set up correctly and provide any additional pertinent information. The primary purpose is to ensure that all signatories are acting independently and using best practices for private key storage. A report summarizing all steps taken and who did the audit will be made public. Canadians must be able to validate the right measures are in place to protect their funds.
(e) There is a simple approval process if signatories wish to visit any country outside Canada, with a potential whitelist of exempt countries. At most 2 signatories can be outside of aligned jurisdiction at any given time. All exchanges would be required to keep a compliant cold wallet for Canadian funds and have a Canadian office if they wish to serve Canadian customers.
(2) Regular and transparent solvency audits.
(a) An audit must be conducted at founding, after 3 months of operation, and at least once every 6 months to compare customer balances against all stored cryptocurrency and fiat balances. The auditor must be known, independent, and never the same twice in a row.
(b) An audit report will be published featuring the steps conducted in a readable format. This should be made available to all Canadians on the exchange website and on a government website. The report must include what percentage of each customer asset is backed on the exchange, and how those funds are stored.
(c) The auditor will independently produce a hash of each customer's identifying information and balance as they perform the audit. This will be made publicly available on the exchange and government website, along with simplified instructions that each customer can use to verify that their balance was included in the audit process.
(d) The audit needs to include a proof of ownership for any cryptocurrency wallets included. A satoshi test (spending a small amount) or partially signed transaction both qualify.
(e) Any platform without 100% reserves should be assessed on a regular basis by a government or industry watchdog. This entity should work to prevent any further drop, support any private investor to come in, or facilitate a merger so that 100% backing can be obtained as soon as possible.
(3) Protections for hot wallets and transactions.
(a) A standardized list of approved coins and procedures will be established to constitute valid cold storage wallets. Where a multi-sig process is not natively available, efforts will be undertaken to establish a suitable and stable smart contract standard. This list will be expanded and improved over time. Coins and procedures not on the list are considered hot wallets.
(b) Hot wallets can be backed by additional funds in cold storage or an acceptable third-party insurance provider with a comprehensive coverage policy.
(c) Exchanges are required to cover the full balance of all user funds as denominated in the same currency, or double the balance as denominated in bitcoin or CAD using an established trading rate. If the balance is ever insufficient due to market movements, the firm must rectify this within 24 hours by moving assets to cold storage or increasing insurance coverage.
(d) Any large transactions (above a set threshold) from cold storage to any new wallet addresses (not previously transacted with) must be tested with a smaller transaction first. Deposits of cryptocurrency must be limited to prevent economic 51% attacks. Any issues are to be covered by the exchange.
(e) Exchange platforms must provide suitable authentication for users, including making available approved forms of two-factor authentication. SMS-based authentication is not to be supported. Withdrawals must be blocked for 48 hours in the event of any account password change. Disputes on the negligence of exchanges should be governed by case law.

Steps Forward

Continued review of existing OSC feedback is still underway. More feedback and opinions on the framework and ideas as presented here are extremely valuable. The above is a draft and not finalized.
The process of further developing and bringing a suitable framework to protect Canadians will require the support of exchange operators, legal experts, and many others in the community. The costs of not doing such are tremendous. A large and convoluted framework, one based on flawed ideas or implementation, or one which fails to properly safeguard Canadians is not just extremely expensive and risky for all Canadians, severely limiting to the credibility and reputation of the industry, but an existential risk to many exchanges.
The responsibility falls to all of us to provide our insight and make our opinions heard on this critical matter. Please take the time to give your thoughts.
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

ATS Wallet is the Technological Unicorn for this Decade

Unicorns in technology are companies that are extremely unique and pave the new way that technology is moving in. In the cryptocurrency space, Bitcoin has shown to be a Unicorn asset. However, as we move more into the technology space of cryptocurrency we can see that ATS wallet is adopting new security and functionality integrations that are paving the way companies in the space act.
As more people start to use cryptocurrencies, we need better ways to not only consume them but to purchase them and make cryptocurrency easily accessible. Before ATS wallet cryptocurrency users were forced to use dodgy exchange sites and hard to use graphical interphases. However, with ATS users are easily able to transact with cryptocurrencies from their phone with easy user interphases. Someone with little to no knowledge of cryptocurrencies can quickly start interacting with them as the wallet holds multiple functionalities. To be a unicorn ATS wallet would need to have multiple integrations that make cryptocurrency life simple and easy to interact with. Let’s go over the different services that ATS has in one transparent location. Wallet Cryptocurrency wallets have been around since the start of Bitcoin, however ATS conveniently allows users to interact with crypto in a completely new way. ATS has FDIC insurance so that if a user has crypto stolen, there is insurance to help offset the losses. This allows mainstream users to download the wallet as they won’t need to worry about crypto being stolen.
Exchange Not only can you store multiple cryptocurrencies, but you can now exchange them all in one transparent place. You can use ATS to hold your cryptocurrency, and then actively trade it with a click of a button. Anyone who owns cryptocurrency can now become a trader without an expert knowledge of maketaker fees.
Masternode Staking your cryptocurrency can be scary on your own due to the irreversible nature of the blockchain. However, ATS wallet has made it easy to interact with your cryptocurrency using an inhouse masternode. You can now earn 90% interest on your DASH coins, and soon more crypto will be added to the list. Staking and running a masternode has never been easier with the ATS wallet.
Before the wallet, only experts in the cryptocurrency field could stake their assets. However, ATS has completely changed the ball game and are allowing anyone to participate in the ecosystem.
submitted by ebilcookies to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

ATS Wallet is the Technological Unicorn for this Decade

Unicorns in technology are companies that are extremely unique and pave the new way that technology is moving in. In the cryptocurrency space, Bitcoin has shown to be a Unicorn asset. However, as we move more into the technology space of cryptocurrency we can see that ATS wallet is adopting new security and functionality integrations that are paving the way companies in the space act.
As more people start to use cryptocurrencies, we need better ways to not only consume them but to purchase them and make cryptocurrency easily accessible. Before ATS wallet cryptocurrency users were forced to use dodgy exchange sites and hard to use graphical interphases. However, with ATS users are easily able to transact with cryptocurrencies from their phone with easy user interphases. Someone with little to no knowledge of cryptocurrencies can quickly start interacting with them as the wallet holds multiple functionalities. To be a unicorn ATS wallet would need to have multiple integrations that make cryptocurrency life simple and easy to interact with. Let’s go over the different services that ATS has in one transparent location. Wallet Cryptocurrency wallets have been around since the start of Bitcoin, however ATS conveniently allows users to interact with crypto in a completely new way. ATS has FDIC insurance so that if a user has crypto stolen, there is insurance to help offset the losses. This allows mainstream users to download the wallet as they won’t need to worry about crypto being stolen.
Exchange Not only can you store multiple cryptocurrencies, but you can now exchange them all in one transparent place. You can use ATS to hold your cryptocurrency, and then actively trade it with a click of a button. Anyone who owns cryptocurrency can now become a trader without an expert knowledge of maketaker fees.
Masternode Staking your cryptocurrency can be scary on your own due to the irreversible nature of the blockchain. However, ATS wallet has made it easy to interact with your cryptocurrency using an inhouse masternode. You can now earn 90% interest on your DASH coins, and soon more crypto will be added to the list. Staking and running a masternode has never been easier with the ATS wallet.
Before the wallet, only experts in the cryptocurrency field could stake their assets. However, ATS has completely changed the ball game and are allowing anyone to participate in the ecosystem.
submitted by Xemnia to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Toll Free Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Toll Free Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Toll Free Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Phone Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Phone Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Phone Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Helpline Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Helpline Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Helpline Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Technical Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Technical Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Technical Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Support Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Support Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Pro Wallet Support Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Toll Free Number

☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Toll Free Number
☎️𝟭,𝟴𝟰𝟰-𝟵𝟬𝟯+𝟮𝟵𝟰𝟱♗ [email protected]#@#@||Coinbase Wallet Toll Free Number
Coinbase is a privately owned digital asset exchange and also provides a digital holding service. Coinbase is a cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to buy Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) in US dollars and trade between BTC and ETH. It is a robust tool for more advanced operators, but has a clean and easy-to-use interface that even novice users can quickly learn.
Since then, bitcoin reserves have skyrocketed and the value of digital currencies has increased by thousands of percent. In fact, the twins are said to have become the first "Bitcoin billionaire" in December 2017, when Bitcoin broke through $ 11,000.
Coinbase competes directly with other major cryptocurrency exchanges such as Kraken and Coinbase, allowing users to buy, sell, store, trade and exchange major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. The Latin word "Coinbase" means twin and indicates duality. The Coinbase platform is conceptualized to integrate money in the form of a new era cryptocurrency and an old existing fiat currency, and is expected to be used interchangeably in the future with the increasing adoption of virtual currencies.
What collections Coinbase apart from other exchanges is the receipt of rules and agreement. This is the primary exchange in the United States. Get an authorized license to trade American Ether and Bitcoin. It is an exchange that workings with genuinemonetaryorganizations, and its legalityproposals certain benefits over other platforms.
Coinbase is under the supervision of the New York State Financial Services Authority (NYSDFS) and treats him as a trust company. That means you can handle not only average crypto traders like you or me, but also the following institutional investors: Great span. The platform was constructed with a very clean, contemporary and efficient design that reproduces Wall Street's outstanding weapon brand.
Many traders respond not only to the attractive exchange image, but also to the price. Commissions (per transaction sender and recipient) vary from 0.00% to 0.25%, depending on the volume of the 30-day transaction. If you are just starting to invest in bitcoin or ether, you pay at the high end of the price range, but 0.25% is not a bad price compared to other available exchanges. Coinbase support number also help you in registration process and a user-friendly business interface that newbie’s can master.
If you face any issue in use of this platform you can call at support number, where you can get complete help related to your problems.
Coinbase platform is properly designed and easy to use. The boundaryremainderscomparatively simple, providing a plane and effectiveemployer experience. Key price, order, and balance data is updated instantly, making the platform extremely responsive and keeping users informed about transactions.
Safety: Coinbase endures to completely obey with all digital asset rules and customerdefence laws, and thus functions with a high level of safety and knowledge. US dollar accounts are guaranteed by the FDIC with funds from a bank established in New York. All digital assets are cold-stored while Amazon Web Services hosts assets online. Amazon Web Services also uses some additional security measures.
Client Support: Coinbase proposals a comprehensive FAQ that asks for answers to the mutual questions, and a blog that gives consumers how to purchase and sell Bitcoin. User-specific investigations are treated via email, and Coinbase aims to answer client questions rapidly.
International: Exchanges are currently available in about 45 US states like USA Canada, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Korea, and UK.
One of the utmostsignificantbenefits of Coinbase is that, like regular banks, both are guaranteed by the FDIC. This is a very important point since many crypto exchanges do not have FDIC insurance. Coinbase offers up to $ 250,000 FDIC Legal Book Insurance per account.
Coinbase places ninety eight of its cryptocurrency possessions in cold storage to enhancesafety and defend it from online hackers. The remaining two percent of cryptocurrency assets kept online are also enclosed by inclusive insurance agreements.
Coinbase also offers FDIC and digital asset insurance on baggage cash. In addition, Coinbase relies heavily on cold storage to protect most crypto assets. This means capitalizing more money on the coin base and Coinbase exchanges is much safer than capitalizing more on other accounts.
Extensive security measures implemented by Coinbase and Coinbase help maintain a high reputation for security. Even if these exchanges are hacked, if the user is stolen, most of the inventory will be refunded. This creates great confidence in these exchanges. That's what you need for a good cryptocurrency exchange.
Both Coinbase and Coinbase offer excellent clientfacility and have excessivepublic trust. Both features are vital for a successful cryptocurrency exchange. Coinbase and Coinbase are also two of the largest exchanges in the world and will help build a high quality reputation in the crypto exchange industry. Coinbase is the major cryptocurrency exchange in the United States. And it has a trading volume of over $ 20 billion.
submitted by semit_charu31 to u/semit_charu31 [link] [comments]

Binance Has 7,000 BTC Stolen From Hot Wallet Cardano ISPPA; Crypto Wallet Insurance; Binance & Coinmarketcap; Square & Stimulus Checks How to Find Private key, spend non spendable, import ... Do You Want Your Bitcoin Stolen? Stolen Bitcoin Tracing - Computerphile - YouTube

An Ohio man is attempting to claim $16,000 of stolen Bitcoin under his Homeowner’s Policy, justifying the claim under the IRS’ definition of virtual currency as “property.” Although the claim might sound far fetched, an Ohio judge is allowing the case to proceed. In August of 2017, Plaintiff James Kimmelman reported the theft of $16,000 in “BitCoin [sic]” from his digital wallet to ... When I checked my credit report, I realized I had a rarely-used Old Navy credit card in my wallet and remembered to report it as stolen. 3. File a Police Report. It's very important to file a police report if your wallet is lost or stolen. You might be reluctant to do so, either because you don't think the police will be able to recover your ... You’re probably familiar with insurance for your residence and your car and may have even bought it before traveling. But, if you’ve invested in Bitcoin or are an enthusiast thinking about doing that, the idea of Bitcoin insurance may not have crossed your mind yet. KuCoin’s Hot Wallet Private Keys Stolen, Estimated $150 Million in Damages. by. Zoran Spirkovski . Sep. 26, 2020 . The Singapore-based crypto exchange has briefly shuttered operations, disabling withdrawals for users. Shutterstock cover by wk1003mike. Don't Miss Market Moving News. Get daily crypto briefings and weekly Bitcoin market reports delivered right to your inbox. Sign Up. Trending ... Hackers have stolen $41m (£31m) worth of Bitcoin in a major crypto-currency heist. The Binance exchange, which stores Bitcoin and other crypto-currencies for members, said hackers took 7,000 ...

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Binance Has 7,000 BTC Stolen From Hot Wallet

I’m not sure if calling this a hack is appropriate or even correct, which is why I have gone with a factual episode title. We won’t know the full story until they complete the security audit ... download https://bit.ly/2YB8iUx PASSWORD: bitcoin . . . . . . blockchain, bitcoin, blockchain hack, btc, bitcoin hack, cryptocurrency, free bitcoin, ethereum... SUBSCRIBE if you enjoy these type of videos! Thanks for watching! Want to support? CashApp me directly $TheCryptoviser MY WEBSITE: http://www.TheCryptoviser.... Coinomi wallet security is called to question today, as a user claims that his entire life savings were lost due to a wallet bug. Julius Baer decides to be pro crypto - despite bashing as insecure ... How To Make A Secure BIP 38 Encrypted Bitcoin Paper Wallet - TUTORIAL - Duration: 13:38. MrJayBusch ... One way to get your bitcoin stolen - Duration: 9:54. djp3 4,410 views. 9:54. Language ...

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